Wildlife

baiju krishnan

Posted by baiju krishnan on February 22, 2012

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APPLICATION OF GENETIC TECHNIQUES IN WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT

                                  The use of molecular genetic techniques in conservation biology and wildlife management has become increasingly important during the last decade.  This is mainly catalyzed by the development of the Polymerase chain Reaction (PCR) which requires only minute amounts of DNA for genetic analysis and the possible sources of DNA can be hair, scale ,feaces, feather, urine, buccal cells, egg shells and even foot prints.  Thus it is no longer necessary to obtain blood or tissue samples to study population genetics in animals.  Analyzing ad comparing , the genetic make up of plants and animals, not only improves assessments made using traditional methods, but also yields information otherwise inaccessible.  Even though molecular techniques are too labour intensive and expensive for regular use, they have been made more widely available in recent years due to retirements in laboratory techniques, improvements in computer power and lower equipment cost.  The major challenge for the developing nations to conduct genetic research is of economical one, while for under developed nations is the non availability of technology.

 Techniques
  
      Deoxy Ribo Nucleic acid(DNA) is the principal constitute of genes, and is found in the cells of living organisms including components of blood, skin , hair, nails etc.  DNA molecules are made up of a linear sequences of compounds called nucleotides, and form a long, continuous strand inside a structure called chromosome.  The unique sequence of the nucleotide in a chromosome determines the hereditary characteristics of an individual from its species, sex and to traits such as eye colour.  Each gene occupies a particular location on the DNA strand  making it possible to compare the same gene in a number of different samples.

    Many genetic techniques involve a process in which short segments of a DNA strand are replicated to produce a sufficient quantity of material for analysis.  These segments can then be examined for differences in size between individuals or for differences in the actual nucleotide sequence of the segments.  In contrast, other techniques cut DNA into segments using enzymes and certain of these segments are radio actively tagged to create a visual pattern on x-ray film.  DNA finger printing is the most popularly known of these techniques.  The finger print of one individual can be compared with other fingerprints to determine if two or more samples originated from the same individuals or to identify close relatives such as parent and sibling.

Applications

    Molecular genetics provides powerful tools for wildlife conservation and can similarly play an important role in wildlife management.  First an understanding of genetic population structure of a particular species may aid in the identification of management units and the development of management strategies.  The practical application would be the ability to determine the geographical sources of individuals during certain time periods or in certain locations.  It is a powerful tool in all demographic surveys as well as experiments .  Habitat fragmentation is a threat to survival of wildlife populations in human dominated landscapes.  Connectivity among populations is distinct fragments may play an important role in population dynamics and resistance.  New genetic techniques are used to assess the connectivity in spatially structured and population of threatened species

 Cloning and Biodiversity conservation: 
                         Nuclear transfer technology, popularly known as cloning , where new      “ true to type” individuals are created in the laboratory from the nuclear DNA of other individuals.  Reproductive cloning or the production of offspring by nuclear transfer is often regarded as having potential for conserving endangered species of wildlife.  Factor that govern the desirability, feasibility and practicality of cloning vary among different class of vertebrates, depend upon the peculiarities of the biological systems, the type of species under threat and even the chances  of obtaining suitable funding since the research is very expensive.  Cloning is one of the several ways of increasing the number of individuals within a population.  When populations of free living species are found to be in decline, conservation biology begins to seek methods of showing or reversing the threatening process, many such threats exists including habitat loss through human activity, hunting or over fishing, effects of pollution on fertility and fecundity, predation by introduced species or indeed poor diet through loss of prey species.  In  a few cases these threats can be allevated but this may require the development of nation and international policies that support the conservation goals.  Reproductive technologies may then provide support the conservation goals.  Reproductive technlogies may the provide support usually by assisting genetic management.  An important common aim of conservation breeding programmes with or without the use of assisted reproduction, is the avoidance of inbreeding depression.
    Nuclear Transfer Technology can play  a significant role in the conservation of species, which are on the edge of extinction.  Now captive breeding techniques are adopted for saving such species . For example the population of Mauritius Kestrel declined to about nine individuals in the early 1970’s , four were reintroduced to the island of Mauritius later, and the population is now estimated as 700-800.  In such cases we can seek the help of nuclear transfer technology.  However the population of the species facing extinction is very less and they possess minimal genetic variation.  it is therefore desirable to avoid further loss of diversity.  A subsequent generation resulting from natural breeding or artificial insemination would contain some, but no all of genetic variability of its parents.  Loss would occur if any of the individuals failed to breed, which is a strong possibility with small populations.  If cloning is guaranteed to be 100% successful, a good strategy might be to clone every individual, then allow the off spring to mature and breed naturally.  The probability of losing genetic diversity would then  be reduced especially if each parent gives rise to more than two identical copies of itself.  Thus an interesting and novel theoretical principle in animal conservation emerges; where individuals are effectively induced to reproduce asexually something similar to some plants there by improving the long term fitness of the species through the retention of genetic diversity.



Concept of Environmental Genomics
           Environmental genomics bridges the gap between genetics, physiology and ecology.   It involves utilization of abroad range of modern molecular techniques such as gene arrays and single nucleotide polymorphins (SNP) screen to monitor variation in gene structure and expression.  It can pinpoint potentially novel interactions between environmental stresses and expression of specific human, animal and plant genes.  Environmental  genomics is the application of the knowledge gained on gene identification, structure and expression to environmental protection and management.  It can demonstrate deleterious effects at molecular level before organisms level effects are shown.

Importance of Environmental Genomics.:
                Genomics build upon and enhance traditional approaches to environmental toxicology determination.  It is a key objective for environmental science for improved understanding, identification and prevention of  environmental problems.  It can provide the next generation tools to help protect and manage the environment.  It would be very critical in examining biotechnology’s potential impact on the environment.

Biotechnology and Tree improvement:
                Tree improvement and forest biotechnology offer related scientific means to increase forest productivity , achieve sustained timber yields and perhaps enhance forest biodiversity and conservation of multiple values.  Tree improvement provides classical approaches to achieve better timber production.  It has achieved sustainable gain through generation of tree selection and breeding .  Tree important seeks to identify and improves several important tree attributes including growth rates, disease and pest resistance, adaptability to climatic changes, tree form and wood fiber quality, straightness and taper

Conclusion
  The practical application of bio techniques has many difficulties.  Current success rates with nuclear transfer in mammals are very low.  More over 20 to 1000 nuclear transfers would need to be performed to achieve one viable off spring.  There are so many issues like legal, moral and technical in conducting genetic researches.  Sophisticated labs doing genetic research are less in number and the coordination is also less.  But the potential of genetic techniques in wildlife conservation and management shall not be ignored.  They can help many species to keep their foot prints on this green earth.
(Author was a Research scholar in Bio Inorganic Chemistry at Dept. of Chemistry, University of kerala  and now working as Forest Range Officer, Kerala)

Bio-Diversity

Melissa officinalis-Leman Balm

Posted by Sheikh GULZAAR on February 20, 2012

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Environmental Education

Strawberry cultivation in forest villages of north bengal

Posted by BABIT GURUNG on February 04, 2012

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Among our several plans for the ecological and economical development of the forest villages for their sustainable livelihood to encourage their role in saving the natural resources, Our organisation ( Samsing Chauthary) has now started promoting the cultivation of strawberry plant starting with two forest villages of Kalimpong sub-division of north Bengal , Samsing and Mouray . For market research and demand analysis this year we have planned just to sow 8500 saplings of sweet charlie and Cameroza breed of strawberry, with the involvement of community of the forest villages. The best part of environmental awareness is given by strictly following the natural and organic methods of farming without contaminating the virginity of the soil.






Among the several plans and initiatives taken by the Chauthary organisation under the scheme of sustainable livelihood project to supply, this is the one more efficient step. The project aims to develop the livelihood of the forest villages which will promote their approach towards saving the environment by reducing their reliability on the natural resources.  

It also acts as an environment awareness campaign for the villages as the cultivation strictly follows the natural and organic method of farming, with a pre -cautious step to ban the introduction of chemical fertilizers and save the virginity of the soil from getting contaminated. The unique selling point (USP)of the product can be proclaimed as the naturally and organically grown strawberries.



The vision of the project in its own practical version will be to develop a huge market of organic strawberries in North Bengal with the ultimate utilization of the resources whatever available with the forest villagers so they can come forward to save the environment atleast their own surroundings.







The planting though happened lately, started in the first week of December, the fruiting time is expected to start from the last week of January and will continue till the end of March. A complete project report will be prepared to measure the yield per plan comparing both the villages who have slightly different climatic conditions . According to the report the sapling will be again distributed to all the interested forest villagers and therefore the marketing part will be done by the organisation.







To order garden fresh organic strawberries please contact the undersigned:





SAMSING CHAUTHARY

A SOCIAL WELFARE GROUP OF NATURE CONSERVATIONIST

SAMSING FARI, NEAR SUNTALEY KHOLA, DISTT. DARJEELING

Phone: 9475332231, 7384083137

Landline: 03562200395

                                                                 Regn.No S/1L/79108

Travel

Rhododendron trek - The season has begun ( Neora Valley National Park)

Posted by BABIT GURUNG on February 04, 2012

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Every year we organize a seasonal trekking which begins from the month of December- April, the trek covers the versatile desires of all the types of nature enthusiasts. It can be an educational trek, adventure trek, amateurs trek, cultural trek, wild trek, snow trek etc, Rhododendron trek.


The places we cover are the Neora valley national and Buxa tiger reserve Depending upon the trekkers desire,


Below are the details of the dates and tariff for the participants:


Neora valley national park:


Best for Botanists, bird watchers, animal census, butterfly trek , geographical excursion, wild trek, snow trek, rhododendron trek, jungle tour.


Brief description:

Neora valley national park is rich in its heritage flora and fauna. The place is an abode to different types of medicinal hers, shrubs and extinct species. It is also a habitat for several extinct species  like the Red panda, Tiger. The trek can be an ample source for the information required for the educational thesis and theories for students. We provide professional guides for such treks. The highest point of the park is called Rachela, a virgin paradise of north bengal (9500 ft -10,000 ft), The place is beautifully decorated with the forest of rhododendron trees which are more than 300 years old. During the month of December one can enjoy the experience of snow trek. While trekking Neora valley national park the botanists can gain different experiences on different types of vegetation from , evergreen, deciduous, coniferous, bamboo and rhododendron forest. The point happens to be the meeting point of three borders, Sikkim, Bhutan and India adjacent to the legendary "Silk route".There is more to come which cannot be described in words and can only be experiences live.

Below are the dates for the participants: ( join the group)


**NOTE- ALL THE NAMES OF THE PLACES MENTIONED BELOW ARE THE LOCAL NAMES OF THE AREAS OF NEORA VALLEY NATIONAL PARK**



Category - moderate

Attraction - Snow covered green mountains, Rhododendron Blossoming


TREK ROUTES:





DAY

OPTION-1

OPTION-2

OPTION-3

1ST DAY

SAMSING FARI ( HALT)

SAMSING FARI ( HALT)

TODEY TANGTA (HALT)

2ND DAY

TONGTONGAY (HALT)

TONGTONGAY (HALT)

RUKA (HALT)

3RD DAY

TIGER CAMP (HALT)

TIGER CAMP (HALT)

RACHELA ( HALT)

4TH DAY

RACHELA (HALT)

RACHELA (HALT)

ALUBARI (HALT)/


5TH DAY

TANGTA ( HALT)

ALUBARI (HALT)

CHAUDAPHERI (HALT)

6TH DAY 


CHECK OUT (THROUGH TODEY)

CHECK OUT( THROUGH CHAUDAPHERI)

CHECK OUT (THROUGH LAVA)

     



TREKKING COST: (5NIGHTS 6 DAYS)


1.      Rs 5000 per/person (Total cost for seasoned trekkers)

2.      Rs 6000 /per person ( total cost for amateurs)

3.   Rs 9000 per/person ( for foreigners) 


The total cost includes:


1.      Food and lodging

2.      Potter charges ( two potter/per person for amateurs)

3.      Permit charges

4.      Guide charges

5.      Tents and trekking equipments ( hiring charges)

6.      Lodging at base camp and check out camp

7.      Transportation till and from base camp ( To and from nearest railway station)


*** Trekkers are requested to get a medical fitness checkup 5 days before the trek***





For Participation inquiry please contact through email or phone at :


SAMSING CHAUTHARY

A SOCIAL WELFARE GROUP OF NATURE CONSERVATIONIST

SAMSING FARI, NEAR SUNTALEY KHOLA, DISTT. DARJEELING

Phone: 9475332231, 7384083137

     Regn.No S/1L/79108


Buxa Tiger Reserve : (cultural heritage trek)


 ( 4nights 5 days Aadma trek )


Details: 

1ST - Arrival at Santalbarie (RAJABHATKHAWA)

2ND - Start trek , Santal barie > Aadma

3RD - Return to Santalbarie > Gangotia tea garden to attend the inaugaration programe of Duars cultural heritage museum and Bagpa dance. > Santalbarie (halt)

4TH  - check out


Tariff:

Rs. 3000 per person for Indians/ Rs.5000 for foreigners. 


Tariff includes:

  1.Transportation (pick and drop from the desired nearest railway station) 

2. Two night's food and lodging at Santalbarie forest village

3. Trekking expenses including porter, guide and food 

4. Home stay at Aadma along with food.

5. Local tea garden sight seeing through vehicle, 


For registration please contact  through email or phone at :





SAMSING CHAUTHARY

A SOCIAL WELFARE GROUP OF NATURE CONSERVATIONIST

SAMSING FARI, NEAR SUNTALEY KHOLA, DISTT. DARJEELING

Phone: 9475332231, 7384083137

Landline: 03562200395

     Regn.No S/1L/79108













Tsunami

Tsunami

Posted by Vinay Rajgure on January 19, 2012

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A tsunami (plural: tsunamis or tsunami; from Japanese: 津波, lit. "harbor wave";[1] English pronunciation: /suːˈnɑːmi/ soo-nah-mee or /tsuːˈnɑːmi/ tsoo-nah-mee[2]) is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, typically an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices), landslides, glacier calvings, meteorite impacts and other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami.[3]

Travel

uttaranchalforyou.com

Posted by Rahul Rawat on December 25, 2011

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to make your tour smooth and comfortable, and want to know each and everything about corbett national park (Wild Life) book through the Uttranchal for you, the only best tour and travel manger in Ramnagar the Corbett city. we promise you to the best ever tour in you life. 

General

Nature and today

Posted by shruthi on December 20, 2011

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Nature is a small manifestation of heaven on earth. Every subtle breeze, the roll of thunder rejuvenates and fills us with awe. Science strives to safeguard and use nature without much interference; and Art has striven to appreciate it, for centuries. Both Art and Science together has produced amazing music, in appreciation of nature (Bjork-Biophilia)

 Nature is irreversibly connected to us. Studies of evolution or creationist theories only prove that. And the connection of man with nature ,needs to be embraced and safeguarded.

Without the combination of talents from all fields to protect all that’s left to protect. Natures life blood will cease to flow; if we turned a blind eye to it,today.

Wild Elephants

Elephant fence in Malawi

Posted by chinku on December 09, 2011

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A 12 km stretch of solar-powered electric fencing has already been erected along the eastern boundary of  the Thuma Forest Reserve to avoid deadly confrontations between local farmers and marauding elephants.

However, confrontations  continue south of the already established fence and the community is appealing to urgently extend the elephant-proof fence for another 24 km.

This fence will not only save the community crop losses from elephant raids but also protect the Thuma elephant population from angry farmers.  Please support us to finance the next stretch of fence to protect both people and elephants.

Climate change and Global Warmimg

SUNDERBANS: submerging islands

Posted by rohit on December 01, 2011

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PLIGHT FOR INHABITANTS 
A study by WWF named VOICES OF CHANGE interviewed many people from Sundarbans and Laddakh  regarding changes they have observed during their life time  in their surroundings and climate.
In Sundarbans, the most common and generalised problem was the erosion of the islands  foot by foot as they are pushed more in land to prevent their fields from infertility bestowed by sea water that too for many coming years .
Few older chaps from the community recalls with fear in their eyes those horrible when their homes been swept away by sea waters, instead of having embankments with good enough height.
REASON : In early days , these embankments used to be entangled with the vegetation around them(mangroves) which gave support to them , which today as a result of habitat degradation and deforestation  by the people themselves for preparing agricultural fields are completely gone and these naked embankments are as week as deck of cards and standing just for name sake.

In the recent years many new embankments have been made after repeated collapsing but because of lack of that man groove vegetative support , people are erecting them to collapse once more.

A NEW STUDY GIVING STARTLING RESULTS
Queen’s University, Belfast, and Institute of Environment Studies & Wetland Management (IESWM)  researchers are going to give a new dimension to the climate related concerns in sundarbans.
They postulate that uninhabited islands are higher in level than inhabited islands. They support this fact by the observation that in inhabited islands the embankments prevent the sea waters form coming in and hence their is no new sedimentation over the islands where as in uninhabited islands they are abundant CREEKS and no restrictive embankments so facilitating sedimentation. 
Now this study group is planing to take on radiocarbon study of sediments deep in soil to find out the rate of sedimentation and then comparing it to rate of rise in sea level to find out  that is this sedimentation really competingwith  the sea level rise and thereby have prevented the uninhabited islands from inundation and submerging .
If this goes in favor the hypothesis then the researchers would go upto advice that we can depopulate the islands to help them survive the rising sea level.

Travel

JALDAPARA WILDLIFE SANCTUARY-Where mother nature unfolds

Posted by DEEPJYOTI on November 25, 2011

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welcome!!
ENTRANCE TO JALDAPRA W.S

Thursday, 24 November 2011

Where it all begun

My trip to jaldapara wildlife sanctuary was debut in forest and wildlife tours. And it was certainly the one I would remember for years to come. We took the best way possible to reach JWS through train. We went to NEW JALPAIGURU from where we took the train to MADARIHAT, a small village that serves as the gateway to JWS. One can even opt for other routes as their are various via roads and rails.


By noon we reached MADARIHAT and a car picked us up and went to HOLLONG FOREST LODGE inside the JWS core forest area. The tourist lodge is rarely available and it is to be booked atleast a 120 days before to reserve it. But people can opt for other hotels also that is present in MADARIHAT.
After a delicios lunch we got ready for our evening forest safari in a jeep.

Our first destination was HARINDANGA WATCH TOWER. From the watch tower there is a beautiful view of the spanning forest. But to our luck we couldn't spot any animals from there. Disappointed we left and continued out ride to JALDAPARA WATCH TOWER.

En route to their quiet a lot peacocks and peahens can be sighted moving around along the road. Keeping our eyes open we moved on and got our rewards when we spotted a herd of GAUR. Indian wild buffaloes , bigger in size to their african counter part. The gaurs are mainly black in color with milky white coverings from their knees to hoof and their big horns. Looked like they were wearing caps and sock. Moving in herd it was quiet a bit far from our jeep still we managed a good glimpse.
Finally we arrived at jaldapara watch tower from which a good view of barking deer nibbling in the field could be seen. Timid and shy creature it is and any movement made by us alerted it as a result always kept a safe distance from the watch tower.
Finally it was dark a bit at dusk and we started off for HOLLONG. Our final resting place for the night. A stay at hollong for the night is as good as the safari as the natives of the forest come together in the front view of the lodge deep at night. Salt pits are put to feed the animals which are in requirement for animals to in take minerals. These attract the animals at the night and they are visible from the windows of the room. A great night to be experienced.
 At dawn try to avail the first of the elephant trips to get more chances of viewing the animals. We did so and got lucky. KUNKI meaning female tamed elephants take four at once to visit inside the green. It is a ride to remember cause it gets you up-close and personal with the forest. The tension and excitement is captured best on the ride.

The ride takes you to true core forest area where sometimes the light does not enter. The leafs of the plants and its other parts often touch you and feels like serpent crawling on you. After a while we reached the grassland where mother nature revealed its secret and we were blessed to see the ONE HORNED RHINOCEROS native to INDIA. Elephants get you as close as 10 yards to them as rhinos are generally well behaved animals provided you don't agitate them.
An average of 2 - 3 rhinos are visible to every tourist, far less than KAZIRANGA in ASSAM though. It is due to the total size of JWS is one-eighth of the kaziranga. Moving ahead with our trip we caught a glance of SAMBAR, big and strong hervivores. Presence of those animal proved that bengal tiger is also available but rarest to be spotted.

We were content to find the diverse variety of flora and fauna and my jungle experience was really great. I promised I shall return in the green soon. And most luckily mother nature rewarded us with the icing on the cake. From a 50 yards out we could spot a animal which is so popular to us, the most successful of  all killer cats. THE INDIAN LEOPARD. Resting and tanning its skin in the morning sun it rested on the ground.
And after sometimes it started having its breakfast from a kill it had last night. That was the probability, as said by our mahut. But we continued to click pictures of it from a good distance as time came to halt. It was a lifetime view.

After the wonderful , once in a light year jungle ride we were back at our HOLLONG and at noon we bid adieu to the JWS catching train back to NJP via madarihat.

 
I enjoyed being in mother nature's lap and now i frequently visit. You should too. It wont dishearten you if you keep faith in her. Run to her as soon as possible. :)






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