February 18, 2011
Living system controls its activity through enzymes. Enzymes are biological catalysts. They increase
or decrease the rate of chemical reaction in the cell, but enzymes remain unchanged after the reaction. Most cellular reaction occurs about a million time faster with the help of the enzymes rather than in the absence of it. Enzymes work on which chemical
substances are known as substrate. Enzyme works on substrate to form an enzyme-substrate complex. After reaction, this complex split and produce the
Product and enzyme get released. In the end of the reaction, enzyme remains unchanged and paired with another substrate. A small amunt of enzyme can work on a huge amount of substrate.
The term, enzyme was first used by Kuhne(1878). Buchner (1897) first collected enzymes from Yeast
The general properties of enzymes are
All enzymes are globular protein and catalyst.
Their presence do not affect on characteristic and type of the Product.
Enzyme reactions are bi-directional.
Enzymes are selective for their substrate.
Enzyme’s activity can be influenced by other molecules. Inhibitors are the molecule that decreases enzyme’s activity. Activators are molecule that increases
Enzyme works in definite pH, temperature and concentration.
The protein parts of the enzymes are apoenzyme, and non-protein part is known as co-factors.
International Union of Biochemistry (IUB) and Enzyme Commissiob (EC) classify and name the various
enzymes. Generally, -ase is added with the name of the substrate to form the name of an enzyme, eg; the enzymes function on arginine and urea are respectively known as arginase and urease.
February 12, 2011
Myself and my father with his friend went to the Jayamangali Black Buck Reserve, situated near Mydenahalli, a small village about 23 kms frm Madhugiri Town. The place boasts of about 4000 to 5000 Black Bucks, 6 leopards, jackals and the famous Indian Fox
and about 20 to 30 species of birds including the most endangered Montagu's Harrier , Red Necked Falcon and the Steppe Eagle. The place is totally comprised of grasslands similar to the African Savannas.
Mydanahalli is a place for Black Bucks making it the second sanctuary apart from the famous Rani Bennur Black Buck Sanctuary. Recently, The forest department sanctioned funds for the construction of two rooms near the entry gate for the sanctuary. The rooms
are available at an affordable price of . Booking are to be made from the Forest Department, Tumkur( address is given in the next page ). Mydenahalli is a total grass landed area providing the Black Bucks to roam around the sanctuary .
Mydanahalli is not difficult to be reached. Here is some info :-
Nearest hotel for good food : KYATASANDRA Distance : 38 kms
Nearest Bus Station : MADHUGIRI Distance : 23 kms
Nearest Railway : KYATASANDRA Distance : 38 kms
Nearest Airport : BANGALORE Distance : 163 kms
all the above given data is in approximate calculation .
Mydanahalli can be reached from two different routes. They are :-
1) FROM BANGALORE TOWARDS TUMKUR :-
Bangalore -----> Nelamangala -----> Kyatasandra -----> Tumkur ----->
After reaching Tumkur, cross 3 flyovers and then after a few yards a mud road comes to the right side of the higway main road . Follow that road.
After about 40 kms you will reach a village called Koratagere, continue further about 5 kms to reach a town called Madhugiri. Again Continue further 23kms
to reach Mydanahalli and from the main road. A mud path leads to the right, follow that and there you will reach the main gate of the Reserve.
2) FROM BANGALORE TOWARDS DODDABALLAPUR :-
Bangalore -----> Hebbal -----> Yelahanka -----> Doddaballapur -----> Gowribidhanur -----> Thondebavi ----->
Kodigenahalli -----> Maidanahalli
I don't know when and where to deviate from the main road as i forgot to note down the names of small villages though i feel this is the best route to enter the black buck reserve. I will try to note them down when i go there next time .
When you travel to mydanahalli, i suggest you to stay the whole day in the sanctuary because you may get rare happenings in nature. Usually I would stay till 5'o clock in the evening and I would return, but now the Karnataka Forset Department has sanctioned
funds in building two rooms in the sanctuary. U can stay there. The rooms are luxurious and are at an affordable price.
Cost of the rooms : Rs. 300/- per room
Booking to be made at : Aranya Bhavan,R.K. Nagar,Kunigal Road
Ph :- 0816 - 2201196 / 97
Person to contact : RFO
WHAT YOU MAY GET TO PHOTOGRAPH
Apart from the Black Bucks , you can get a wide variety of various wildlife subjects to shoot.
Wildlife what you can sight are :-
* Indian Fox ( exception )
* Leopard ( i have not even seen once )
* Montagu's Harrier
* Red Necked Falcon
* Steppe Eagle
* Short - Toed Snake Eagle
* White Eyed Buzzard
* Marsh harrier
* Oriental Honey Buzzard
* Snakes ( If you are lucky )
The existence of Leopards in Mydanahalli is not known to me. I have just listed it because i remember my father telling me that one of the photographers team had spotted a leopard pug mark.
THE BEST SEASON FOR PHOTOGRAPHY
According to me, the best season for photography is during winter. It is because you get not only
Black Bucks, but also you will get the birds of prey as they will be available to photograph only
during the winter in whole of south India. Even the sanctuary will be green. You can also enjoy
the pleasant winter climate. Hence you can leave your place at an ideal time around 4:30 am in
the morning so that you can reach the sanctuary around 8:00 am.
Dont forget to have your breakfast packed or you can have it on your way to Tumkur, you will
not get to eat anything in and around the sanctuary in 5 kms of radius.
WILDLIFE I WITNESSED AND PHOTOGRAPHED
On my first trip to Mydanahalli I saw only the Black Bucks and the White eyed buzzard and also
the Red Necked Falcon. But my second trip was somewhat successful. I got to see 10 species of birds and 2 species of animals. As you well know that you may not be successful in all the outings you go, you maybe successful in one of the ten trips. That happens
for all of us. Hence I didn't get disappointed when I first went to this sanctuary.
I also have my own website, under the name, http://www.wildlifeventures.com,
please visit the site and also please give your suggestions by writing in the guestbook
February 04, 2011
The ‘Beej Bachao Andolan’ [BBA], begun in the late 1980s, is twenty five year old, led by farmer and social activist Vijay Jardhari. The Andolan started in the village Jardhargaon
of district Tehri, Uttaranchal, famous for its unique movement to save the traditional seeds of the hills.
The ‘Beej Bachao Andolan’ [Save the Seed Movement or BBA] is not only a crusade to conserve traditional seeds but also to promote agriculture and local
A farmer and social activist, Vijay Jardhari realized that modern agriculture was destroying traditional farming. Crop yields of the high-yielding varieties
in the modern agriculture were actually low; soil fertility was declining leading to an increasing dependence on toxic chemicals. Along with other activities of chipco movement, Jardhari formed the BBA to promote traditional agriculture and crop varieties.
In the valley of Ramasirain, Uttarkashi district, Farmers were growing a distinctive variety of red rice called
chardhan. The rice was nutritious and suited to local
requirements and conditions. Farmers also grew indigenous varieties like thapchini, jhumkiya, rikhwa and lal basmati. Agriculture here was untouched by modern practices and good yields were obtained without the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. What
the farmers here were doing was avoiding monoculture in a method called baranaja [12 grains] that involves the multicropping of a no. Of cereals and legumes. This diversification is security against drought and crop failure. Different crops are harvested at
different times of the year and ensure year-round supply of food. This also maintain soil fertility replenishes nitrogen.
Today BBA has about 150 varieties of paddy from which 100 different varieties can still be grown. BBA has also collected 170 varieties of rajma. Effective pest control is accomplished
by using the leaves of the walnut and neem, and the application of the ash and cow’s urine. The use of traditional farming methods and seeds has resulted higher yields, improved health of humans and increased conservation of soil fertility and agro-biodiversity.
January 10, 2011
I was very kindly invited to join your club by Susan Sharma. I am amazed at how much support and love i receive from the people of India.I would one day like to visit your beautiful country. i have been volunteering my services and personal funding to
save and promote wildlife conservation in Chobe Botswana.Here we have over 160 000 elephants compromising over half the entire elephant population of the world. i alone provide veterinary services for the park. i have 2 Major projects which i need to implement
One is to save the declining lion population that was wiped out by a canine distemper outbreak last year, The other is introduction of UAV IE Unmanned aerial vehicles for patrol and identification of poachers. These are very expensive and i need your assistance
in doing this. i have no source of income and have expended my lifes savings. please visit my website at
http://chobewildliferescue.org/ to see what i am doing.
Any help would be much appreciated
Dr Clay Wilson
December 27, 2010
The combined wild Elephant Population of North Bengal is about 500. The vegetative degeneration in addition to innumerable human
habitations inside the forests has rendered the existing habitats in the area redundant. Moreover, the forests have become too fragmented even to support the 300-odd elephants, thus the elephants are compelled to move through tea gardens, villages and agricultural
fields killing more than 60 persons annually. In contrast to the figures for north Bengal , only 30 to 40 deaths are caused by human-elephant conflict in southern India , even though the elephant population is more than 20 times the Wild elephant population
of North Bengal.
The locals use spears, arrows, firecrackers and even firearms to drive away the elephants. Invariably the Elephant gets injured
and unable to bear the pain goes berserk, causing even more damage. A lot of Elephants face an agonising death each year.
A recently upgraded Railway line from Siliguri to Alipurduar has added a new dimension to Human Elephant Conflict. Since the conversion
of the tracks a few years back, over 25 Elephants have been hit by trains. On the night of 23nd September’2010, seven elephants including a four year old calf died when a Guwahati bound goods train passing through dense forest knocked them down.
Four of the elephants died on spot including one female that was dragged along for 300 meters by the train, The baby elephant was outwardly without any wound; but it slumped to the ground and died later in the morning.
Please assist us in raising awareness about the issue. All suggestion and inputs are welcome.
November 22, 2010
We have vacancy for the post of Executive Naturalist at Orange County Kabini. Candidates with pleasing personality, communications skills and knowledge on wild life and conservation can apply.
Orange County kabini
November 14, 2010
November 06, 2010
Its so important to stop burning remains of crops still 95% of our farmers burn there remains which produce CO2 and causes maximum damage to our environment ......these gases deposits in upper region of atmosphere and damage maximum crops ....and forest diversities
So please stop these peoples to burn all such things these are destroying our forests and wild animals too
Dr. Dau Lal Bohra
November 02, 2010
Activities to save the vulture's,Jorbeer, Bikaner, Rajasthan
Populations of three Vulture species, White-rumped Vulture (Gyps bengalensis), Slender-billed Vulture (Gyps tenuirostris) and the Red-headed Vulture (Sarcogyps calvus)have suffered large decreases across the wold. Poisoningthrough
consumption of carcasses that have previously been treated withthe veterinary drug Diclofenac has led to large population declines.The main threat to vultures in India is diclo,since numbers of largewild ungulate species that constitute the mainsource of
food forvultures are relatively low. A vulture restaurant isthe provision of adomestic animal carcass (a cow is the most usualspecies) to vultures atan appropriate site within their range.
Alternative feeding management of Gyps Vulture for migratory species in North West Rajasthan, India
(Vulture Safe Zones – Vulture Restaurants)
Necessary to conserve vulture’s migratory root
Currenttime focus on vulture conservation in North West Rajasthan especiallyBikaner region is very important. This is very sensitive area regardingto bird conservation, but in governmental policy focusing only suchsite their vulture population took place all
the year example- nearNational park, wild life conservation area and other places. Butregarding the vulture migration is also the very big problem formonitoring and conservation aspects. South Asia is very important areafor vulture migration, so alternative
feeding management is necessaryfor rest Gyps vulture’s and their conservation. In year 1999 to 2009,lot of Rs utilized for vulture conservation by Government and NGO’sbody, but in last 10 year no big changes for vulture population andtheir relevant area.
Importance of Alternative feeding management
Manyscientists suggest for decline of vulture population to change climaticand behavioral mode including roosting and feeding site. But reallyfood changing is the major factor for decline, So Alternative feedingmanagement system is very helpful for regarding
conservation. Manytheories given by research paper but in ground level this is the notpossible and it’s very costly. So presenting this particular mode offeeding management is helpful for protection.
Treats of feeding managements
Vultureshave performed important ecological, traditional and aestheticfunctions throughout the Indian subcontinent. In Vulture conservationprogram Indian government make up very sensitive and important issuebut in ground level they were worked not properly
as If VeterinaryDiclofenac Ban by Government they people were used unspecified brand orHuman Diclofenac (Generic) for animal treatment. In many places poisonsuse for dead animal protection from vultures or carnivorous birdsspecies but they poison work against
for environment. In Present timegovernment made many protocol for vulture conservation specially policyto recover the particular 3 endangered species but although mean timeIndian Griffon is also reduced in number. If don’t take any action bygovernment or NGO’s
they show same scenario as OWBV’s position, soneeded to change protocol for migratory vultures program from allworking agencies. Historically, many factors have been responsible forlocal vulture declines particularly poisoning and persecution. Thedeclines
in India result from elevated adult and juvenile mortality,and low breeding success. The widespread and rapid pattern of declines,i.e. in all areas irrespective of habitat or protection status suggestthat persecution through shooting or poisoning, whilst important
at alocal scale, are unlikely to have caused the declines. Theepidemiology of the declines is best explained by the introduction andwidespread use (i.e. nationwide) of a contaminant, or an infectiousdisease.
Available safe meat for vultures (activities to save the vulture in the Jorbeer, Bikaner)
Providing the safe meat (diclofenac and other poison’s free animal)for vulture feeding as alternative method for migratory species. Theyprefer which animals from the areas where dairy farmers usually avoiddiclofenac their large cattle and utilize Meloxicam
or other painkillerof treatment.
1. Provide Diclofenac-free food to vultures in a secure and undisturbed location.
2. Create awareness among local inhabitants about the need to conservevultures through publications and education programmes.
3. Work with veterinarians to prevent the use and diversion of human Diclofenac for treatment of cattle.
4. Regular vulture census in the region.
October 29, 2010
Need to conserve water to save wildlife and stop desertification-Listen to an audio clip by clicking on the link.
Mansoor Khan from Bilaspur is talking about the need of wildlife conservation. He says water is the most important link for it. We need to save water. If we allow the rain water to flow to sea and continue to take out ground water at such a speed then we are
inviting deserts. We need to stop cutting of trees. If you want to save tiger then you will also have to save sambar, its prey, he says, who is dependent on trees and entire nature and environment.