Amazing Facts About Wildlife

The word `impossible` is not there in the dictionary of wildlife

The following picture and story which appeared in 'The Economist' Jan. 19-25, 2002 tells an amazing story.

Any relationship between a lioness and an oryx calf might be expected to be both brief, and terminal for the latter. That between the animals in the picture was, indeed, terminal for the calf. But it was by no means brief, and it was not the lioness that did the terminating. This odd couple was spotted in the Samburu game reserve in Kenya on December 21st, and was tracked and filmed by Saba and Dudu Douglas-Hamilton, two wildlife photographers, until another lion killed the calf. Cross-specific fostering of this sort can be made to happen in the laboratory, if the fostered individual is young enough to 'imprint' on another animals' though she were its mother ( and , obviously, if the surrogate mother accepts it-as she may if she has recently given birth). What makes this case bizarre is that the oryx's mother was still alive and lactating, and that the lioness was young and showed no sign of ever having given birth. Also, the Douglas-Hamiltons observed that it was the lioness who followed the calf ( for example when it went back to its mother to suckle), rather than the other way round. Why she wanted to adopt something that ought to have pressed the button labeled 'lunch' is a mystery.

Answers To Quiz Of The Month

Correct answers to quiz on Ape

All correct answer for Apes was sent by Roopam Dhawan of Chandigarh and two members Vinai Shukla & Mamta have scored 9/10.

We have a new quiz on 'Snakes' which is online now. So hurry up and attempt it !!

Correct answers are written in red.

1. The largest primate is
O Gorilla O Orangutan O Chimpanzee
2. .......................opened a window on the social nature of gorillas, their complex range of emotions and behaviours.
O John Mitane O Jane Goodall O Dian Fossey
3. The DNA of...........................is similar to that of homo sapiens.
O Gibbons O Chimpanzees O Orangutans
4. In parts of Africa and Asia, effective protection for apes have been provided by
O Tourist dollars O Game laws O State Governments
5. Bonobos are different from chimpanzees because they are,
O Smaller O Female centric O Walk upright often
6. Bonobos are found in the wild only in
O Sumatra O Nigeria O Zaire
7. Tool use among chimps was first discovered in
O 1980s O 1930s O 1960s
8. Hoolock gibbons use their .....................to mark and establish territory.
O Urine O Scent O Songs and whistles
9. The only ape found in India is the
O Hoolock gibbon O Chimpanzee O Bonobo
10. Genetically ........................are closest to humans
O Gorillas O Orangutans O Bonobos

News and Views

News...

Art Camp

Susan Sharma, Founder, IndianWildlifeClub.com

Art Camp and Photo Exhibition held on 12th January 2002 at New Delhi.

IndianWildlifeClub.com along with Mantram Art Foundation and Nehru Bal Samiti sponsored an Art camp for underprivileged children on the theme' Wildlife and Environment'. The best paintings were awarded prizes and exhibited in the Russian Cultural Centre.

On the same day Parivartan Art Gallery held an exhibition of wildlife photographs. Four members of IWC namely, Jayant Deshpande, Saurav Ghosh, Rahul Dutta and Anantika Singh exhibited their photographs.

The picture shows Rahul Dutta presenting his photographs to Ms Erma Manoncourt Dy. Director,( Prog.) UNICEF. Insets: the inauguration of photo gallery by the Chief Guests, Ms Manoncourt and Shri. V. Viswanadhan ( Eminent Artist based in Paris).

The photograph by Jayant Deshpande 'The Peacock Flytrap' - an endangered plant from the Western Ghats, won a lot of appreciation and is also shown as an inset.

Incidentally, Jayant, who managed selling three of his photographs, contributed 30% of the sale proceeds to Indian Wildlife Club. Thank you Jayant!!

More news on the artcamp and pictures in the next issue.

A paper titled' Making the ICE (Information, Communication and Entertainment) age work for Conservation, was presented by Dr.Susan Sharma at the National Symposium on Elephant Conservation, Management and Research, at Hardwar in December 2001. Full text of the paper can be read by clicking here.

...............AND Views

(Saraswati Kavule, Member , IndianWildlifeClub.com)

“There is enough for everyone’s need but not for some people’s greed” – Mahatma Gandhi.

I had been questioned recently when I had proposed that we need to adopt simple lifestyles and may be avoid certain modern day comforts/luxuries in order to preserve the environment. One of the young persons, who wanted to volunteer for the awareness campaign, asked me if I was asking him not to enjoy his life. I did not know what to say to that at that time. Truly, what constitute comforts for us today were rare luxuries in the past. The question is where do we draw the line. If we must save nature for ourselves and for our children, then is it too much to ask to make these sacrifices? And actually are they sacrifices? What did we gain from all our luxury lifestyles? Air-conditioning has made us more prone to respiratory problems like asthma (combined with the increase in vehicular pollution which again is a result of our comfortable lifestyles). People in urban areas, drive to the gym and expend much money and energy there. And yet, when we look at the health standards of the urban versus rural where do we stand? All the processed foods and intake of chemical prescriptions have reduced our immunity to disease. Not to speak of carcinogens in all that convenience! An average urban Indian spends most of his/her free time trying to preserve their fragile health- not to speak of the great amounts of medical bills. In this context, isn’t it is in our interest if we went back to our simple lifestyles? I wouldn’t say that one must do an about turn, but when we can decide on man-made creature comforts based on our needs it would reduce a lot of the harmful toxins being generated in the manufacture, usage and recycling(if any) of these products and saves us the environment besides keeping us in good health. Is that too much!

Request for submission of Species Profiles

Invitaion For Club Members

Below is a list of references of few selected mammal species of conservation importance in S.Asia. Wildlife Institute of India( WII) is preparing species profiles for these species. We invite club members to write such articles for the e-zine. WII might use that information for their research projects, of course with proper acknowledgement.

 

References on the biology and ecology of selected mammal species of conservation importance

( List prepared by Ashish Kumar, WII. )

Hog-Badger

Jha, Ajeya Status of the weasel family in Sikkim. Tiger Paper, 26(1): pp. 1-4; 1999 ISSN: 1014-2789

Long, C.A.; Killingley, C.A. The Badgers of the World. Springfield, Illinois, USA:

Charles C. Thomas, 1983. 404pp. ISBN: 0 398 04741 3

Lekagul, B. The deterioration of forest and wildlife of the country within the past 30 years. Conservation News (Thailand), 5+: 3-6. 1983

PARKER C BIRTH, CARE AND DEVELOPMENT OF CHINESE HOG BADGERS ARCTONYX COLLARIS

ALBOGULARIS AT METRO TORONTO ZOO. INT. ZOO YEARBOOK; 19, 182-185, 1979.

Sprent, J. F. A. TOXOCARA VAJRASTHIRAE SP. NOV. FROM THE HOG-BADGER (ARCTONYX COLLARIS) OF THAILAND. Parasitology, 65(3): 491-498. Dec. 1972. WR 148: 48 ISSN: 0031-1820

 

Malayan sun bear

Onuma, Manabu; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Ohtaishi, Noriyuki Reproductive pattern of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 63(3): 293-297. 20013 figs. ISSN: 0916-7250

Pickard, John Pre-and post-partum behaviour of a female Malayan sun bear at Wellington Zoo. International Zoo News, 47 (5): 284-296. 2000. ISSN: 0020-9155

Sam D D Asiatic black bear conservation action plan. Status and management of the Asiatic black bear and sun bear in Vietnam. In: Bears. Status survey and conservation plan (Servheen C, Herrero S & Peyton B, comp): 216-218 + 271-296, 1999.

Servheen C Sun bear conservation action plan. In: Bears. Status survey and

conservation plan (Servheen C, Herrero S & Peyton B, comp): 219-223 + 271-296, 1999.

Salter R E Sun bear conservation action plan. Status and management of the sun bear in Lao PDR. In: Bears. Status survey and conservation plan (Servheen C, Herrero S & Peyton B, comp): 223-224 + 271-296, 1999.

Duc H D The status of large carnivores in Vietnam. Biosphere Conservation, 2(1): 45-49, 1999.

Rabinowitz, Alan Killed for a cure. Natural History, 107(3): 22-24. 1998. ISSN: 0028-0712

Schwarzenberger F; Schaller K et al Faecal steroid analysis for monitoring ovarian function and the effect of PZP (Porcine zona pellucida protein) in the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) In: Proceedings of the 2nd Scientific Meeting of the European Association of Zoo- and Wildlife Veterinarians (EAZWV), May 21-24, 1998, Chester, UK (Zwart P et al, eds): 387-395, 1998.

Wasser, S. K.; Houston, C. S.; Koehler, G. M.; Cadd, G. G.; Fain, S. R. Techniques for application of faecal DNA methods to field studies of Ursids. Molecular Ecology, 6 (11): 1091-1097. 1997. ISSN: 0962-1083

Santiapillai, Anoma; Santiapillai, Charles Status, distribution and conservation of bears in the People's Republic of China. Tiger Paper, 24(2): 22-25. 1997. ISSN: 1014-2789

Santiapillai, Anoma; Santiapillai, Charles The status, distribution, and conservation of the Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Indonesia. Tiger Paper, 23(1): 11-16. 1996. ISSN: 1014-2789

Lane, Thomas J. The family of bears. N. Am. Vet. Conf. Vet. Proc., 10: 895-897. 1996. ("The North American Veterinary Conference, Orlando, Florida, January 13-17, 1996").

Yiqing M Conservation and utilization of the bear resources in China. In: 9th

International Conference on Bear Research and Management. Bears - Their Biology and Management (Claar J J & Schullery P et al eds): 157-159, 1994.

Mills J; Servheen C The Asian trade in bears and bear parts: Impacts and conservation recommendations. In: 9th International Conference on Bear Research and Management. Bears - Their Biology and Management (Claar J J & Schullery P et al eds): 161-167, 1994.

Strauss G Domitor/Tilest - eine neue Kombination zur Immobilisation von Malayenbaeren (Helarctos malayanus) Milu: Wissenschaftliche und Kulturelle Mitteilungen aus dem

Tierpark Berlin, 8(1): 121-127, 1994. ISSN: 0076-8839

Servheen C Conservation strategies for Asian bears. In: Wildlife Conservation: Present Trends & Persp. 21st Century (Maruyama N et al, eds), Proc. Intern. Symp. Wildl. Conserv. , Japan Aug. 21-25 1990; V Intern. Congr. Ecol. Intecol'90: 11-14, 1991.

Kuehme W Beobachtungen zur Fortpflanzungsbiologie des Malaienbaeren (Helarctos

malayanus) mit Vergleichen zum Brillenbaer (Tremarctos ornatus) Der Zoologische Garten, 60(5): 263-284, 1990. ISSN: 0044-5169

Stuhrberg E Beitrag zum Blutbild und zur Biochemie des Blutserums bei Eisbae en (Thalarctos maritimus) und Malayenbaeren (Helarctos malayanus) Internationales Symposium ueber die Erkrankungen der Zoo- und Wildtiere (ISEZ), 30: 389-398, 1988.

Kuntze A; Hunsdorff P; Kuntze O Weitere haematologische und biochemische Befunde von gesunden und kranken Ursiden (Thalarctos maritimus, Ursus arctos und Helarctos malayanus) Internationales Symposium ueber die Erkrankungen der Zoo- und Wildtiere (ISEZ), 30: 399-406, 1988.

Yi-ching, Ma. THE STATUS OF BEARS IN CHINA. Acta Zoologica Fennica, No. 174. p. 165-166. 1983. WR 193 ISSN: 0001-7299

Dobias, R.J. Thaleban National Park. Conservation News, 3+1p. 1982? p10. ISSN: 0010-647X

Smith, Sally J. PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES AND HAND-REARING PROBLEMS WITH MALAYAN SUN BEARS AT ROEDING PARK ZOO. Animal Keepers' Forum, 7(6): 137-141. June 1980. WR 179 ISSN: 0164-9531

MCCUSKER J S BREEDING MALAYAN SUN BEARS (HELARCTOS MALAYANUS) AT FORT WORTH ZOO. INT. ZOO YEARBOOK; 14, 118-119, 1974.

Grores, M. C. Grisefuluin treatment of Microsporum canis infection in Malayan sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) American Veterinary Medical Association. Journal, 155: 1090-1092. 1969. ISSN: 0003-1488

Binturong

Chandra, A. M. Sundeep; Ginn, Pamela E.; Terrell, Scott P.; Ferguson, Bruce; Adjiri-Awere, Alfred; Dennis, P.; Homer, Bruce L. Canine distemper virus infection in binturongs (Arctictis binturong) Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 12(1): 88-91. 20004 figs. ISSN: 1040-6387

Jha, Ajeya Errata: A preliminary survey on the status of civets in Namdapha Biosphere Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh. Tiger Paper, 27 (2): 28. 2000.Errata of article in Tigerpaper Vol. 26, No. 3, Jul.-Sept. 1999, pg. 1-5. ISSN: 1014-2789

Jha A A preliminary survey on the status of civets in Namdapha Biosphere Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh: Errata. Tiger Paper, 27(2): 28, 2000. ISSN: 1014-2789

Jha, Ajeya A preliminary survey on the status of civets in Namdapha Biosphere Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh. Tiger Paper, 26(3): pp. 1-5; 1999 ISSN: 1014-2789

Hur, K.; Bae, J.-S.; Choi, J.-H.; Kim, J.-H.; Kwon, S.-W.; Lee, K.-W.; Kim, D.-Y.* Canine distemper virus infection in binturongs (Arctictis binturong) Journal of Comparative Pathology, 121(3): 295-299. 1999 ISSN: 0021-9975

Bjornson, A. P.; Lewis, J. C. M.; Appleby, E. C. Mammary neoplasia in a binturong (Arctictis binturong) Veterinary Record, 144(15): 421-422. 1999 ISSN: 0042-4900

Nettelbeck, Anouchka Rebekka Encounters between lar gibbons (Hylobates lar) and binturongs (Arctictis binturong) Folia Primatologica, 69(6): 392-396. 1998. ISSN: 0015-5713

Pitra C; Lieckfeldt D et al Vaterschaftsnachweis beim Binturong (Arctictis binturong (Raffles, 1821) ) mit Hilfe eines genetischen Fingerabdruckverfahrens. Der Zoologische Garten, 66(5): 301-309, 1996. ISSN: 0044-5169

McNab, Brian K. ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND CONSERVATION IN FRUGIVOROUS AND MIXED-DIET CARNIVORANS. Journal of Mammalogy, 76(1): 206-222. 1995. WR 248 ISSN: 0022-2372

Embury, Amanda; Arnott, John Asian Tropical Rainforest stage I: tiger/otter exhibit at Melbourne Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook, 34: 165-178. 1995. ISSN: 0074-9664

Wilson, Cindy HAND-REARING BABY BINTURONGS. Animal Keepers' Forum, 20(2): 78-80. 1993. WR 239 ISSN: 0164-9531

Rahman, M.M.; Huda, K.M.; Banu, Q.; Asmat, G.S.M. Status of Binturong (^/Arctictis binturong^/) in Bangladesh. Bulletin (Wildlife Series), No 4, 1992. 8pp.

Sokolov, V. E.; T. P. Evgen'evan; T. I. Neklyudova; Phan Chong An and Vguyen Suan Tang STRUCTURE OF THE PERINEAL ORGAN OF ARCTICTIS BINTURONG (SUBFAMILY PARADOXURINEA, FAMILY VIVERRIDAE, ORDER CARNIVORA, MAMMALIA). Doklady Biological Sciences, 315(1-6): 735-738. 1991. WR 226 ISSN: 0012-4966

Lambert, Frank SOME NOTES ON FIG-EATING BY ARBOREAL MAMMALS IN MALAYSIA. Primates, 3 1(3): 453-458. 1990. WR 221 ISSN: 0032-8332

Jackson, P. Manas Tiger Reserve threatened. Environmental Awareness, 13+(1)+: 19-22. 1990

Smith, Gill THE BINTURONG (ARCTICTIS BINTURONG): PART 2. Ratel, 14(6): 168-172. 1987. WR 208

Smith G The binturong (Arctitis binturong): Part 2. Ratel, 14(6): 168-172, 1987.

Quinell, R.; Balmford, A. (Eds) Palawan forest research 1984. Final report. Palawan Forest Research., 1984. iii + 57pp.

WEMMER C; MURTAUGH J COPULATORY BEHAVIOR AND REPRODUCTION IN THE BINTURONG, ARCTICTIS BINTURONG. Journal of Mammalogy, 62(2), 342-352, 1981. ISSN: 0022-2372

AQUILINA G D; BEYER R H THE EXHIBITION AND BREEDING OF BINTURONGS ARCTICTIS BINTURONG AS A FAMILY GROUP AT BUFFALO ZOO. INT. ZOO YEARBOOK; 19, 185. 188, 1979.

Dutt, S. C. and Gupta, P. P. PARAGONIMIASIS IN A BEAR CAT, /ARCTICUS BINTURONG/. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 72 (4): 391-393. Aug. 1978. WR 171 ISSN: 0003-4983

Ivashin, M. V. SOME CASES OF ABNORMAL EMBRYOGENESIS IN /BALAENOPTERA ACUTOROSTRATA/(CETACEA, BALAENOPTERIDAE) IN THE INDOOCEAN SECTOR OF THE ANTARCTIC. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 56(11): 1736-1739. Nov. 1977. In Russian with English summ. WR 169 ISSN: 0044-5134

XANTEN W A; KAFKA H; OLDS E BREEDING THE BINTURONG AT THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK, WASHINGTON. INT. ZOO YEARBOOK; 16, 117-119, 1976.

Kleiman, Devra G. SCENT MARKING IN THE BINTURONG, ARCTICTIS BINTURONG. Journal of Mammalogy, 55(1): 224-227. Feb. 1974. WR 152: 50 ISSN: 0022-2372

KUSCHINSKI L BREEDING BINTURONGS (ARCTICTIS BINTURONG) AT GLASGOW ZOO. INT. ZOO YEARBOOK; 14, 124-126, 1974.

Ogilvie, G.S. The binturong or bear cat. 0000. : 1-3.

 

Himalayan yellow throated marten

Jha, Ajeya Status of the weasel family in Sikkim. Tiger Paper, 26(1): pp. 1-4; 1999 ISSN: 1014-2789

Schilo R A; Ruchljada O W Haltung und Zucht von Buntmardern (Martes flavigula) im Zoo Nowosibirsk. Der Zoologische Garten, 65(2): 135-138, 1995. ISSN: 0044-5169

Mead, Rodney A. REPRODUCTION IN MARTES. Martens, Sables, and Fishers: Biology and Conservation. Steven W. Buskirk, Alton S. Harestad, Martin G. Raphael, and Roger A. Powell, editors., p. 404-422. 1994. WR 244

Buskirk, Steven W. INTRODUCTION TO THE GENUS MARTES. Martens, Sables, and Fishers: Biology and Conservation. Steven W. Buskirk, Alton S. Harestad, Martin G. Raphael, and Roger A. Powell, editors., p. 1-10. 1994. WR 244

Buskirk, Steven W.; Alton S. Harestad; Martin G. Raphael and Roger A. Powell; editors MARTENS, SABLES, AND FISHERS: BIOLOGY AND CONSERVATION. Cornell Univ. Press, 501p. 1994. Available at $65.00 (cloth) from Cornell Univ. Press, 512 E. State St., Ithaca, NY 14851-0250. WR 244

Anderson, Elaine EVOLUTION, PREHISTORIC DISTRIBUTION, AND SYSTEMATICS OF MARTES. Martens, Sables, and Fishers: Biology and Conservation. Steven W. Buskirk, Alton S. Harestad, Martin G. Raphael, and Roger A. Powell, editors., p. 13-25. 1994. WR 244

Saha, Subhendu Sekhar ON SOME MAMMALS RECENTLY COLLECTED IN BHUTAN. Bombay Natural History Society. Journal, 74 (2): 350-354. Aug. 1977. WR 170 ISSN: 0006-6982

WEMMER C; JOHNSON G L EGG-BREAKING BEHAVIOR IN A YELLOW-THROATED MARTEN, MARTES FLAVIGULA (MUSTELIDAE: CARNIVORA) Zeitschrift fuer Saeugetierkunde, 41(1), 58-60, 1976. ISSN: 0044-3468

EMERSON K C; PRICE R D A NEW SPECIES OF TRICHODECTES (MALLOPHAGA: TRICHODECTIDAE) FROM THE YELLOW-THROATED MARTEN (MARTES FLAVIGULA) Biological Society of Washington. Proceedings, 87(10), 77-80, 1974. ISSN: 0006-324X

KUCHERENKO S P . IN: OKHOTINA, M. V. (ED. ). FAUNA AND ECOLOGY OF THE TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATES OF THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE SOVIET FAR EAST. ACAD. SCI. USSR, VLADIVOSTOK, PP. 102-106, 1974.

 

Chinese pangolin

Datta, Aparajita Pangolin sightings in western Arunachal Pradesh. Bombay Natural History Society. Journal, 96(2): 310. 1999. ISSN: 0006-6982

Gurung, Juddha Bahadur A pangolin survey in Royal Nagarjung Forest in Kathmandu, Nepal. Tiger Paper, 23(2): 29-32. 1996. ISSN: 1014-2789

Bing Su; Rui-Qing Liu; Ying-xiang Wang and Li-ming Shi GENETIC DIVERSITY IN THE CHINESE PANGOLIN (MANIS PENTADACTYLA) INFERRED FROM PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS. Biochemical Genetics, 32(9/10): 343-349. 1994. WR 248 ISSN: 0006-2928

Zhang, Ya-ping and Li-ming Shi GENETIC DIVERSITY IN THE CHINESE PANGOLIN (MANIS PENTADACTYLA): INFERRED FROM RESTRICTION ENZYME ANALYSIS OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNAs. Biochemical Genetics, 29(9/10): 501-508. 1991. WR 228 ISSN: 0006-2928

Chen Quan; Liu Ruiqing; Wang Yingxiang and Shi Liming STUDIES ON THE MITOTIC CHROMOSOMES AND MEIOTIC SYNAPTONEMAL COMPLEXES (SC) OF CHINESE PANGOLIN (MANIS PENTADACTYLA). Dongwuxue Yanjiu, 12(3): 299-304. 1991. In Chinese with English summ. WR 231 ISSN: 0254-5853

Heath, Martha E. and Sharon L. Vanderlip BIOLOGY, HUSBANDRY, AND VETERINARY CARE OF CAPTIVE CHINESE PANGOLINS (MANIS PENTADACTYLA). Zoo Biology, 7(4): 293-312. 1988. WR 212 ISSN: 0733-3188

Heath, Martha E. TWENTY-FOUR-HOUR VARIATIONS IN ACTIVITY, CORE TEMPERATURE, METABOLIC RATE, AND RESPIRATORY QUOTIENT IN CAPTIVE CHINESE PANGOLINS. Zoo Biology, 6(1): 1-10. 1987. WR 205 ISSN: 0733-3188

Bridge, Vicki Lyn and Lin Ming-Sheung NOTES ON REARING CHINESE PANGOLINS (MANIS PENTADACTYLA). Animal Keepers' Forum, 13(4): 114. 1986. WR 202 ISSN: 0164-9531

Chen Yuhan; Xu Jiaqiang; Chen Zhuohuai and Xiao Zhende STUDY ON GASTRIC CARCINOMA AND ITS ETIOLOGY IN CHINESE PANGOLIN. Dongwu Xuebao, 32(1): 96-97. 1986. In Chinese.WR 203 ISSN: 0001-7302

Cen Yuhan; Xu Jiaqiang; Chen Zhuohuai; Xiao Zhende and Cu Longhuci ON THE GASTRIC TUMOURS OF CHINESE PANGOLIN. Dongwu Xuebao, 30(2): 105-107. 1984. In Chinese with English summ. WR 195 ISSN: 0001-7302

 

Golden cat

Ray, J.C.; Sunquist, M.E. Trophic relations in a community of African rinforest carnivores. Oecologia, 127(3): 395-408. 20013 figs.; 4 tables. ISSN: 0029-8549

Schauenberg, Paul Bornean golden cats in Berlin. Cat News, No. 34: 31-32. 2001.

Jorio, Louis Wild cat survey of coastal southern Myanmar. Tiger Paper, 27 (2): 7-8. 2000. ISSN: 1014-2789

Griot-Wenk, M. E.; Giger, U.* The AB blood group system in wild felids. Animal Genetics, 30(2): 144-147. 1999 ISSN: 0268-9146

Chakraborty, R.; Chakraborty, S.; De, J. K. Identification of dorsal guard hairs of the species of Indian lesser cats (Carnivora: Felidae) Mammalia, 63(1): 93-104. 1999 ISSN: 0025-1461

Duc H D The status of large carnivores in Vietnam. Biosphere Conservation, 2(1): 45-49, 1999.

Grassman, Lon Stomach contents of an Asiatic golden cat. Cat News, No. 28: 20-21. 1998.

Slack, Gordy The rights (and wrongs) of cats. Calif. Wild, 51(3): 6-7, 48. 1998.

Bassenge A; Geers E; Kolter L Wirkung von verschiedenen Methoden des Environmental Enrichment auf Katzen (Felidae) Koelner Zoo. Zeitschrift, 41(3): 103-131, 1998. ISSN: 0375-5290

Brocklehurst, Mike Husbandry and breeding of the Asiatic golden cat Catopuma

temminckii at Melbourne Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook, 35: 74-78. 1997. ISSN: 0074-9664

Schloeder, C. A.; Jacobs, M. J. A report on the occurrence of three new mammal species in Ethiopia. African Journal of Ecology, 34(4): 401-403. 1996. ISSN: 0141-6707

Hart, J. A.; Katembo, M.; Punga, K. Diet, prey selection and ecological relations of leopard and golden cat in the Ituri Forest, Zaire. African Journal of Ecology, 34(4): 364-379. 1996. ISSN: 0141-6707

Davenport, Timothy African golden cat in south-west Uganda. Cat News, No. 25: 17. 1996.

Davies, Glyn GOLDEN CAT IN ARABUKO-SOKOKE FOREST? E.A.N.H.S. (East Afr. Nat. Hist. Soc.) Bull., 23(3): 51-52. 1993. WR 248

Vellayan, S.; B. Omar; P. Oothuman; J. Jeffery; M. Zahedi; A. Mathew and M. Krishnasamy THE GOLDEN CAT, FELIS TEMMINCKII, AS A NEW HOST FOR DIROFILARIA MMITIS. Malaysian Veterinary Journal, 1(2): 87-89. 1989. In English with Malay summ. WR 221 ISSN: 0126-5652

PETERS G ZUR FELLFARBE UND -ZEICHNUNG EINIGER FELIDEN (MAMMALIA, CARNIVORA) Bonner Zoologische Beitraege, 33(1), 19-31, 1982. ISSN: 0006-7172

Watson, Rupert, W. M. GOLDEN CAT IN THE ABERDARE FOREST. E A N H S Bulletin, p. 14. Jan./Feb. 1980. WR 180 ISSN: 0374-7387

Hardy, Ian W. GOLDEN CAT IN THE ABERDARE NATIONAL PARK. E A N H S Bulletin, p. 111-112. Sept./Oct. 1979. WR 177 ISSN: 0374-7387

HARDY I W GOLDEN CAT IN THE ABERDERE NATIONAL PARK. E A N H S Bulletin, 1979: 111-112, 1979. ISSN: 0374-7387

ACHARJYO L N FURTHER NOTES ON THE BREEDING OF GOLDEN CAT (FELIS TEMMINCKI) IN CAPTIVITY. Indian Forester, 99(1): 53-54, 1973. ISSN: 0019-4816

Acharjyo, L. N. A NOTE ON THE BIRTH OF A GOLDEN CAT (FELIS TEMMINCKI) IN CAPTIVITY. Bombay Natural History Society. Journal, 68(1): 241. Apr. 1971. From J. Mammal. 53(3, suppl.), 1972. WR 148: 50 ISSN: 0006-6982

 

Marbled cat

Jorio, Louis Wild cat survey of coastal southern Myanmar. Tiger Paper, 27 (2): 7-8. 2000. ISSN: 1014-2789

Evans, T.D.; Duckworth, J.W.; Timmins, R.J. Field observations of larger mammals in Laos, 1994-1995. Mammalia, 64(1): 55-100. 20004 appendices; 8 tables; 8 figs. ISSN: 0025-1461

Grassman L I jr; Tewes M E Marbled cat in Northeastern Thailand. Cat News, 33: 24, 2000.

Chakraborty, R.; Chakraborty, S.; De, J. K. Identification of dorsal guard hairs of the species of Indian lesser cats (Carnivora: Felidae) Mammalia, 63(1): 93-104. 1999 ISSN: 0025-1461

Choudhury, Anwaruddin The marbled cat Felis marmorata Martin in Assam-some recent records. Bombay Natural History Society. Journal, 93(3): 583-584. 1996. ISSN: 0006-6982

Records of the Zoological Survey of India. 1995, Vol. 95, No. 1-2, 121 p., plates

Sanzgiri, Mahesh N. OCCURRENCE OF MARBLED CAT (FELIS MARMORATA) AND HOG DEER (AXIS PORCINUS) IN BHAGWAN MAHAVEER SANCTUARY (MOLLEM), GOA, INDIA. Tiger Paper, 12(2): 24. 1985. WR 199 ISSN: 1014-2789

BARNES R G BREEDING AND HAND-REARING OF THE MARBLED CAT AT THE LOS ANGELES ZOO. INT. ZOO YEARBOOK; 16, 205-208, 1976.

WURSTER-HILL D THE G BANDED CHROMOSOMES OF THE MARBLED CAT, FELIS MARMORATA. MAMM. CHROMOS. NEWSL.; 15, 1, 14., 1974.

Tips On Beauty Without Cruelty

Cleansing Creams And Scrubs

Deepika Vohra served as the head of the Department of Beauty Culture at the International Polytechnic for Women at New Delhi. She also ran a beauty clinic at Delhi's Vasant Kunj for some time from where she relocated to New York for five years. Exposure to the world capital of beauty and cosmetics gave her an opportunity to compare the Indian beauty industry with the razzle dazzle of the New World. Reading and researching beauty culture has always been a hobby with her. The tips for beauty given below were selected from her repertoire of nature based recipes which are time tested to deliver.

'Nature Never Did Betray the heart That Loved Her.'-Wordsworth

The present times herald a veritable victory over chemical cosmetics in the form of natural beauty aids. Joy, happiness and confidence for sure contribute vastly to your beautiful appearance. A smooth supple skin is of course an added bonus. So, here are some tips to care for your skin through the seasons.

Basic skin types may be classified into five broad categories- normal, dry, oily, combination and sensitive skin. The skin is made up of protective layers of cells supported by nerves, glands and blood vessels. Your skin lives and breathes. Cells move up to the surface where they are shed and replaced. This topmost layer is protected by the body's natural oil and moisture. It is essential to carefully plan out a beauty routine to attain a flawless, petal-soft complexion.

The first step to your beauty routine is cleansing your skin. Cleansers are formulated to remove surface grime and dirt as well as dissolve stale make up from the skin. A gentle massage will help to float out deep down make up and other impurities.

How do you recognize your skin type?

NORMAL SKIN --- is finely textured with no visible pores, spots, or blemishes, soft and velvety to the touch, and unwrinkled. Normal skin has to be treasured and preserved, as it is liable to change, if neglected.

OILY SKIN ---is caused by overactive sebaceous glands that give rise to large open pores. Larger pores, in turn, lead to blackheads, blemishes and acne. The appearance of blackheads and blemishes is due to clogged oil and dirt in the pores which is not removed instantly by cleansing. Oily skin begins to have an oily shine within a few minutes after wash or make-up. This makes it difficult to hold make-up. However, oily skin has an advantage of ageing very slowly, but deep cleansing must be thorough.

DRY SKIN ---is a sensitive skin type which comes in blotches, tends to peel off easily and feels tight after a wash. Lack of moisture results in dry skin and this skin type is more prominent around the eyes, mouth, lips, sides of mouth, and forehead. Cleansing, toning, moisturizing form an integral routine of this type of skin. Dry skin is highly susceptible to diet, extremes in weather and harsh perfumed skin care products. Dry skin also has another disadvantage. Wrinkles appear faster giving you a prematurely aged look. A generous application of moisturizer will produce a skin which would be on par with the 'enviable' peaches and cream complexion.

COMBINATION SKIN---As the word 'combination' suggests it is mix of two different skin types on one face. More often this skin type is the result of a badly cleansed and neglected skin. It is easily recognizable as it is oily down the T panel, that is the forehead, nose, chin. The skin gets this oily look down the T panel while the rest of the face appear and feel dry. Combination skin needs scrupulous cleansing. It is a good idea to use a face mask for oily skin down the T panel and a mask for dry skin for the rest of the face. This method of treating the combination skin works ideally to give a perfect, balanced effect.

SENSITIVE SKIN---- This type of skin is extremely delicate and vulnerable. It is easily susceptible to freckles, itchy spots and blotches. Dermatitis and allergies caused by chemical cosmetics are common problems of a sensitive skin. It is best to discontinue the usage of strong and harsh skin care products as well as perfumed creams and moisturizers.

CLEANSING CREAMS AND SCRUBS

Herbal cleansing creams are light creams that remove embedded grime and stale make-up without stripping your skin of its natural moisture. Here are some easy to make cleansing potions.

HERBAL CLEANSING CREAM
Ingredients:-
5teaspoon olive oil
5teaspoon fresh coconut oil
5tablespoon cucumber juice
2teaspoon glycerin
4teaspoon beeswax

A pinch of borax

Method----Melt the oil and wax by the double boiling method. Warm cucumber juices, glycerin and borax in a separate bowl until borax is dissolved. Add the
cucumber, borax and glycerin mixture to the oil and whisk the mixture till it thickens. Cool. Excess may be stored in the fridge.

ALMOND CLEANSING CREAM
Ingredients:-
5 tablespoons almond oil
1 tablespoon white wax
2 tablespoon lanolin
1 tablespoon rose water

Method----Melt wax and lanolin by the double boiling method. Stir continuously. Slowly add rose water and almond oil. Remove from heat and allow to cool. May be stored in a glass bottle.

Note--- For all cleansing creams, you may add a few drops of perfume of your choice once the mixture has cooled down.

COMPLEXION SCRUB

A complexion scrub works wonders and leaves your skin with a healthy , shining glow. Complexion scrub is an effective means of removing the dead cells from the surface of the skin. The slightly, abrasive tiny grains present in a scrub , stimulates and gently sloughs away dead and flaky skin . A fresh, smooth look is left behind.

A complexion scrub must be used once a week to loosen ingrained impurities from the pores. For dry skin types a scrub once a month, will suffice. Scrubs are an excellent product for oily skin.

HOME MADE SCRUBS

ORANGE PEEL SCRUB

Ingredients:-
4tablespoon orange peel powder
2tablespoon oatmeal powder
2tablespoon wheat germ powder

METHOD ----- Mix all the three ingredients and store in an airtight container. Use as and when required. For an oily skin, add a few drops of lemon juice or cucumber juice to the water in which you dip the muslin bag containing the scrub. Gently
rub the wet muslin bag on to the face and neck for at least fifteen minutes. Use circular movements and wash off withtepid water.

GREEN GRAM SCRUB
Ingredients:-
4 Tablespoon green gram powder
2 tablespoon besan
2 teaspoon sandalwood powder


METHOD-----Combine all ingredients together and store in
an airtight container.

WHEAT GERM SCRUB
Ingredients:-
1tablespoon oatmeal powder
1tablespoon wheat germ (powder)
1tablespoon skim milk powder
1teaspoon sandal wood powder


METHOD-----Mix the ingredients together and fill in a small muslin bag. Dip the muslin bag in lukewarm water and gently rub on face and neck in circular motion for at least 15 minutes. Finally wash off with tepid water.

Deepika Vohra can be contacted atdeepika@indianwildlifeclub.com

Understand The Animals

Slow Loris

Status: Schedule 1

Four (4) subspecies (disputed) distributed throughout South-east Asia, China, India and Indonesia (from Vietnam to Borneo). Within India, found in all the seven states of north-east India. The north-western limit of its range is the southward band of the river Brahmaputra. According to CITES II rating this species is at lower risk. Jhumming/Deforestation, even moderate selective logging affects their numbers adversely. Hunted for food, medicine and religious ceremony.

ECOSYSTEM USED
Subtropical and tropical moist forests upto 1300 m. Slow loris is arboreal in nature and only inhabits the thickest of vegetation in the tropical evergreen forests. It prefers the regenerating forests and occupies the lower canopy. Also reported from the sub-urban gardens, secondary growths and scrubs. Slow loris prefers forest edges in and around tropical evergreen forests. The edges provide them more support and prey base. ( Pic of Asian slow loris, taken in Laos, courtesy -www.kostich.com)

REARING
Birth season: When vegetation is at a maximum level. Mothers carry infants upto six (6) months. Sexual maturity reaches at the age of 17-21 and 17-20 months for females and males, respectively. Birth interval varies from 12 to 18 months. Infants are parked while mother forages.

FEEDING
Slow lorises are cryptic, slow-moving animals who forage alone throughout the night. The male loris’s range may be larger than the female’s. It is nocturnal, arboreal and hang from a branch upside down to eat with both hands. Their diet include the fruit (50%), animal prey (30%), gum (10%), shoots, bird eggs and insects that have a repugnant taste and smell. Leaves are not consumed but the sap from leaf petiole is sucked. Preferred food plant species recorded is Dillenia pentagyna.

REFERENCES
Rowe (1996), Shrivastava (1999).

Zoo

Train Tiger Tumble

  Toby Ninan retired from Delhi Zoo about two years back. With his varied experiences with the wild animals in the zoo, he is the right person to direct your queries to. Hear what Ninan has to say about his life and chosen career!

It was decided at last that my tigress would go to Trichur (Kerala).Toby Ninan can be contacted at Ninan@indianwildlifeclub.com

She was duly crated and ensconced in the brake van of the train. (G.T Express) going from Delhi to Madras-to be further transported from Madras for the onward journey to Trichur.

All went well for the first day and night and at every second station or so, her keeper and I would open the door and peep in. Except for a few roars at the terrified guard all would be well. Giving us a sour look she would proceed to drink the cool water that was poured into her stone pot. After a few more stations even the guard would come into the van and not be greeted by a couple of powerful roars but a number of 'pfft pffts' which said that even he was welcome in case no other company was available.

Hell broke loose at a station called 'Ongole'. The guard came running to my first class bogey and told me that the tiger had escaped and we would have to get the police to shoot her. Hearing this, the keeper and I left a half eaten meal to try and make out what really was going on.

On reaching the brake van we saw that the door was firmly closed and securely locked. The guard, who by now gathered together his breath explained that the slide door of the crate had been smashed by the shunting action of the train aided by a 'helpful' angle iron on one side of the bogey. He told me that the tiger was out of the crate and would tear me up if I went inside. I told them not to worry as I could easily charm the animal back into her crate and all would be well.

On being reassured, he gingerly opened the door and I put a leg and my head inside. The old girl had her torso out and giving me a look of reassurance slipped back into the crate. losing no time, the keeper and I pushed the other end of the crate onto the wall of the carriage and tied it down to the wall which formed a sort of make shift door. Soon we tied the crate securely onto this wall and temporarily halted 'madam's' exploratory movements. The train was about to go so I invited the guard to a long chat at the next station and soon explained to him that I was solely responsible for the safety of the tiger and told him that as he had seen for himself, nothing will happen for the next part of the journey.

To cut a long story short we reached Madras safely and with the kind help of a luggage clerk found a carpenter who worked for the railways. Between us we 'flicked' one of those boards on trains proclaiming 'Grand Trunk Express' or 'Blue Mountain Express' and fashioned this into a door which slid comfortably in place to replace the broken one.

As the crate was transshipped to the connecting train' Cochin Express' the guard of this train came to know all about 'Rosy's' extra cage activities and refused to take the train to the her destination.

The Station Master and other train officials were called and I made up a cock and bull story that Rosy was a gift of the President of India to the Kerala Government I also added that since she was pregnant, she had to be handled with care and rushed to the Trichur Zoo for delivery under the care of the best vets of the veterinary college there. This tall tale had its desired effect. The guard was replaced and we had an uneventful journey to the Trichur station.

At the station the tiger crate was loaded onto a long two wheeler push cart and lo and behold, in the middle of the town the men managed to let go off the cart and the crate with tiger in it tumbled on to one side in the middle of the road.

I still think it a wonder that the crate did not snap open. The crate, cart and tiger were soon put right side up. The cart and its burden finally reached the zoo where I could meet friends and colleagues whom, over some strong beverages I could regale with the tale of tiger, train and tumble.




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