Amazing Facts About Wildlife

Amazing Facts about Wildlife in the Ocean

( Source: Green Peace International)

The oceans sustain us, but we are not sustaining them. The diversity of life in the world's oceans is being dramatically altered by the excessive exploitation of fish, and other marine species. Most commercially targeted fish populations and many associated marine species are in decline. In addition, marine and coastal ecosystems, as well as habitats vitally important for fish breeding and rearing, are being rapidly degraded.

1. Seven out of ten (69%) of the oceans' commercially targeted marine fish stocks are fished beyond ecologically safe limits, being either fully or heavily exploited, over-exploited, depleted, or very slowly recovering from collapse after previous overfishing.

2. One-quarter of the planet's biological diversity is in danger of extinction within the next 30 years. In the ocean environment, commercial fishing stands as one of the greatest biodiversity threats.

3.Overfishing damages much more than fish populations. Extracting too many fish from an ecosystem can reduce the survival chances of other predators in the marine food web, including populations of marine mammals, seabirds, turtles, sharks and a host of other species

4. Many millions of animals other than fish are severely injured or killed each year through deadly interactions with fishing gear. For instance, millions of dolphins have died in Tuna purse seine nets in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean. An estimated 44,000 albatrosses are killed each year by Japanese tuna long liners.

5. One-quarter (25%) of all the fish pulled from the sea never make it to market. 27 million tons of unwanted fish catch are thrown back each year on average. Most don't survive.

6. One of the world's biggest trawl nets could encircle more than a dozen "jumbo jet" Boeing 747 aircraft at its opening. The net's circumference measures a mammoth 2048mtrs, producing a mouth opening area of 22,900 sq. mtrs. Ships deploying such nets have a capture rate of about ten tons of fish per hour.

7. Eighty percent of the world's marine catch is produced by just 20 fishing nations.

Answers To Quiz Of The Month

Answers to Butterfly Quiz

Amitabh Agarwal from Lucknow, U.P and Vinai Shukla from Gomti Nagar U.P have sent in all correct answers to the butterfly quiz within the stipulated time. Congratulations!!Their surprise gifts will reach them soon.

Correct answers are written in red.

1. The Largest Butterfly in India is:
O Blue Oak Leaf Butterfly O Blue Mormon O Southern Birdwing
2. Which is the smallest butterfly in India?
O Tiny Grass Blue O Grass Jewel O Pale Grass Blue
3. Which is the largest Moth found in India?
O Atlas Moth O Bee Hawk Moth O Tussar Silk Moth
4. Palatable butterflies mimic the unpalatable butterflies to escape from Predators
O True O False O I Do not Know
5. Unpalatable butterflies also mimic other unpalatable butterflies to escape from Predators
O True O False O I Do not Know
6. The Latin name of the order of Butterflies and Moths “Lepidoptera” means
O Scaly Wings O Four Wings O Colorful Wings
7. The yellow colored Brimstone butterflies, which look like butter flying through the air, (probably the reason these insects are called butterflies) are found commonly in which Indian region
O Southern Western Ghats O The Satpuras O The Himalayan foothills
8. Ants, one of the predators of butterfly caterpillars are known to protect some species of butterfly caterpillars.
O True O False O I Do not Know
9. The Butterfly caterpillars use which of the following technique to protect themselves from their predators:
O Camouflage O Chemical warfare O Both
10. Which of the following is a highly threatened butterfly.
O White Dragontail O Grass Jewel O Great Orange tip

News and Views

News...

News.....

Susan Sharma Founder, IndianWildlifeClub.com

When poachers poach it is no longer news, unfortunately. But when poachers give up poaching and turn protectors, it is news with a capital N and wonderful news at that.

"God'Own Country', Kerala has shown that involving the local community in forest management can pay high dividends to all concerned including the forest' s animals. The number of poaching incidents in the Periyar Tiger Reserve in Thekkady, Kerala has fallen from around 60 a year earlier to about three now. And who are helping the Forest Department in this task? 23 former poachers who used to make a living plundering the wildlife and sandalwood trees of the forest. These 23 people are now forest guides, members of the Eco-development Committee and are earning salaries for guiding tourists on treks in the forest. Having been poachers once, they are the first to tip off the officials if any thing untoward is found in the areas they trek.

What has made these men transform is the acceptance that society has accorded to the reformed criminals. With steady incomes and access to loans, the reformed men refrain from illegal activities. Great effort is made to prevent a backslide to poaching- A contributory corpus fund gives loans to the forest guides for buying plots, building houses, buying rickshaws etc. The Forest Department also conducts literacy classes for members of the Eco development committee comprising reformed poachers.

Private tour agencies have put together attractive trekking trails for those who are environmentally conscious. The income earned from these treks help pay the guides' salaries.

 

Jayant Deshpande, Team leader, Pune Chapter has sent in this write up on the progress of the Butterfly Project at Pune.'

Millennium National School in Pune has set up a very high standard for infrastructure, delivery and quality of the education system. Keeping the progressive attitude of the school in mind the members of the Pune Chapter of the IWC approached the management of the School with the idea of having a butterfly garden in the school premises, wherein the school children would be free to watch, observe and learn the insect ecology. Dr. Sudheer Phatak, the Director of the School immediately welcomed the idea and agreed to give space, and maintain such a garden.

The Pune chapter studied the butterflies commonly found the area and came up with their list and their larval host plants. In the First phase the following larval host plants are decided to be planted.

1. Common Mormon - Curry leaves & Citrus ssp.

2. Tailed Jay - Mast Tree

3. Lime Blue - Citrus ssp

4. Common Crow - Oleander

5. Plain Tiger - Calatropis ssp

6. Pale Grass Blue - oxalis ssp.

7. Common Emigrant - Cassia ssp.

8. Red Pierrot - Kalanchoe

Best of luck Pune Team!!

Views............

( Saraswati has an egroup called ' earthscapes@ yahoogroups', which all are welcome to join.)

Gandhiji and Environment:
It is not very fashionable to talk about Gandhian thought and principles in this day of fast track development and tech-driven lifestyles. But the more I think of it, the more I am convinced about his views on lifestyles. They were more closer to being Eco-friendly and sustainable than any other alternatives that we have today. His first aim was to bring back khadi, which is till date the most Eco-friendly fabric - it causes zero pollution in its entire manufacturing process - hand spun cotton, vegetable dyed and then hand woven. He promoted nature cure which requires no chemical medication what so ever and believes in the inherent capacity of the human body to cure itself. For the fashion conscious let me assure that this is a system of medicine that is holistic and originated in the west. So, you may take it that it is scientifically approved as well. He advocated to promote cottage industries- most of which are Eco-friendly. And most important of all is to adopt simpler lifestyles which is an urgent need today if we should save the environment for our sakes. Our greed for more has resulted in the plundering of the earth with irreversible damage. So, perhaps it is time to stop and think about what this great visionary had said to us: "There is enough for everyone’s need but not for some peoples greed".

Saraswati Kavula,
member Indian Wildlife Club.com

And..........Concerns....

Bhavin A Shah 
member Indian Wildlife Club.com, sent in a calender which glorifies the outlawed blood sport of 'CockFight' as a form of 'folk entertainment'. The caption of this picture in the calender for the year 2002 by P.V.S Group, Mangalore mentions that ' Koli Anka or cock fight is usually arranged during temple fairs or on other special occasions. A sharp knife like blade called "Bal' is tied to the legs of the specially reared fighter cock before being let loose on its adversary' The fiery fight that ensues is watched by all, the winning cock bringing honour and glory to its master.'

Request for submission of Species Profiles

Request For Species Profiles

Below is a list of references of few selected mammal species of conservation importance in S.Asia. Wildlife Institute of India( WII) is preparing species profiles for these species. We invite club members to write such articles for the e-zine. WII might use that information for their research projects, of course with proper acknowledgment.

( List prepared by Ashish Kumar, ( mail to ashishkmr71@yahoo.co.in)WII. )

Hog-Badger

Jha, Ajeya Status of the weasel family in Sikkim. Tiger Paper, 26(1): pp. 1-4; 1999 ISSN: 1014-2789

Long, C.A.; Killingley, C.A. The Badgers of the World. Springfield, Illinois, USA:

Charles C. Thomas, 1983. 404pp. ISBN: 0 398 04741 3

Lekagul, B. The deterioration of forest and wildlife of the country within the past 30 years. Conservation News (Thailand), 5+: 3-6. 1983

PARKER C BIRTH, CARE AND DEVELOPMENT OF CHINESE HOG BADGERS ARCTONYX COLLARIS

ALBOGULARIS AT METRO TORONTO ZOO. INT. ZOO YEARBOOK; 19, 182-185, 1979.

Sprent, J. F. A. TOXOCARA VAJRASTHIRAE SP. NOV. FROM THE HOG-BADGER (ARCTONYX COLLARIS) OF THAILAND. Parasitology, 65(3): 491-498. Dec. 1972. WR 148: 48 ISSN: 0031-1820

Malayan sun bear

Onuma, Manabu; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Ohtaishi, Noriyuki Reproductive pattern of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 63(3): 293-297. 20013 figs. ISSN: 0916-7250

Pickard, John Pre-and post-partum behaviour of a female Malayan sun bear at Wellington Zoo. International Zoo News, 47 (5): 284-296. 2000. ISSN: 0020-9155

Sam D D Asiatic black bear conservation action plan. Status and management of the Asiatic black bear and sun bear in Vietnam. In: Bears. Status survey and conservation plan (Servheen C, Herrero S & Peyton B, comp): 216-218 + 271-296, 1999.

Servheen C Sun bear conservation action plan. In: Bears. Status survey and

conservation plan (Servheen C, Herrero S & Peyton B, comp): 219-223 + 271-296, 1999.

Salter R E Sun bear conservation action plan. Status and management of the sun bear in Lao PDR. In: Bears. Status survey and conservation plan (Servheen C, Herrero S & Peyton B, comp): 223-224 + 271-296, 1999.

Duc H D The status of large carnivores in Vietnam. Biosphere Conservation, 2(1): 45-49, 1999.

Rabinowitz, Alan Killed for a cure. Natural History, 107(3): 22-24. 1998. ISSN: 0028-0712

Schwarzenberger F; Schaller K et al Faecal steroid analysis for monitoring ovarian function and the effect of PZP (Porcine zona pellucida protein) in the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) In: Proceedings of the 2nd Scientific Meeting of the European Association of Zoo- and Wildlife Veterinarians (EAZWV), May 21-24, 1998, Chester, UK (Zwart P et al, eds): 387-395, 1998.

Wasser, S. K.; Houston, C. S.; Koehler, G. M.; Cadd, G. G.; Fain, S. R. Techniques for application of faecal DNA methods to field studies of Ursids. Molecular Ecology, 6 (11): 1091-1097. 1997. ISSN: 0962-1083

Santiapillai, Anoma; Santiapillai, Charles Status, distribution and conservation of bears in the People's Republic of China. Tiger Paper, 24(2): 22-25. 1997. ISSN: 1014-2789

Santiapillai, Anoma; Santiapillai, Charles The status, distribution, and conservation of the Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Indonesia. Tiger Paper, 23(1): 11-16. 1996. ISSN: 1014-2789

Lane, Thomas J. The family of bears. N. Am. Vet. Conf. Vet. Proc., 10: 895-897. 1996. ("The North American Veterinary Conference, Orlando, Florida, January 13-17, 1996").

Yiqing M Conservation and utilization of the bear resources in China. In: 9th

International Conference on Bear Research and Management. Bears - Their Biology and Management (Claar J J & Schullery P et al eds): 157-159, 1994.

Mills J; Servheen C The Asian trade in bears and bear parts: Impacts and conservation recommendations. In: 9th International Conference on Bear Research and Management. Bears - Their Biology and Management (Claar J J & Schullery P et al eds): 161-167, 1994.

Strauss G Domitor/Tilest - eine neue Kombination zur Immobilisation von Malayenbaeren (Helarctos malayanus) Milu: Wissenschaftliche und Kulturelle Mitteilungen aus dem

Tierpark Berlin, 8(1): 121-127, 1994. ISSN: 0076-8839

Servheen C Conservation strategies for Asian bears. In: Wildlife Conservation: Present Trends & Persp. 21st Century (Maruyama N et al, eds), Proc. Intern. Symp. Wildl. Conserv. , Japan Aug. 21-25 1990; V Intern. Congr. Ecol. Intecol'90: 11-14, 1991.

Kuehme W Beobachtungen zur Fortpflanzungsbiologie des Malaienbaeren (Helarctos

malayanus) mit Vergleichen zum Brillenbaer (Tremarctos ornatus) Der Zoologische Garten, 60(5): 263-284, 1990. ISSN: 0044-5169

Stuhrberg E Beitrag zum Blutbild und zur Biochemie des Blutserums bei Eisbae en (Thalarctos maritimus) und Malayenbaeren (Helarctos malayanus) Internationales Symposium ueber die Erkrankungen der Zoo- und Wildtiere (ISEZ), 30: 389-398, 1988.

Kuntze A; Hunsdorff P; Kuntze O Weitere haematologische und biochemische Befunde von gesunden und kranken Ursiden (Thalarctos maritimus, Ursus arctos und Helarctos malayanus) Internationales Symposium ueber die Erkrankungen der Zoo- und Wildtiere (ISEZ), 30: 399-406, 1988.

Yi-ching, Ma. THE STATUS OF BEARS IN CHINA. Acta Zoologica Fennica, No. 174. p. 165-166. 1983. WR 193 ISSN: 0001-7299

Dobias, R.J. Thaleban National Park. Conservation News, 3+1p. 1982? p10. ISSN: 0010-647X

Smith, Sally J. PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES AND HAND-REARING PROBLEMS WITH MALAYAN SUN BEARS AT ROEDING PARK ZOO. Animal Keepers' Forum, 7(6): 137-141. June 1980. WR 179 ISSN: 0164-9531

MCCUSKER J S BREEDING MALAYAN SUN BEARS (HELARCTOS MALAYANUS) AT FORT WORTH ZOO. INT. ZOO YEARBOOK; 14, 118-119, 1974.

Grores, M. C. Grisefuluin treatment of Microsporum canis infection in Malayan sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) American Veterinary Medical Association. Journal, 155: 1090-1092. 1969. ISSN: 0003-1488

Binturong

Chandra, A. M. Sundeep; Ginn, Pamela E.; Terrell, Scott P.; Ferguson, Bruce; Adjiri-Awere, Alfred; Dennis, P.; Homer, Bruce L. Canine distemper virus infection in binturongs (Arctictis binturong) Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 12(1): 88-91. 20004 figs. ISSN: 1040-6387

Jha, Ajeya Errata: A preliminary survey on the status of civets in Namdapha Biosphere Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh. Tiger Paper, 27 (2): 28. 2000.Errata of article in Tigerpaper Vol. 26, No. 3, Jul.-Sept. 1999, pg. 1-5. ISSN: 1014-2789

Jha A A preliminary survey on the status of civets in Namdapha Biosphere Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh: Errata. Tiger Paper, 27(2): 28, 2000. ISSN: 1014-2789

Jha, Ajeya A preliminary survey on the status of civets in Namdapha Biosphere Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh. Tiger Paper, 26(3): pp. 1-5; 1999 ISSN: 1014-2789

Hur, K.; Bae, J.-S.; Choi, J.-H.; Kim, J.-H.; Kwon, S.-W.; Lee, K.-W.; Kim, D.-Y.* Canine distemper virus infection in binturongs (Arctictis binturong) Journal of Comparative Pathology, 121(3): 295-299. 1999 ISSN: 0021-9975

Bjornson, A. P.; Lewis, J. C. M.; Appleby, E. C. Mammary neoplasia in a binturong (Arctictis binturong) Veterinary Record, 144(15): 421-422. 1999 ISSN: 0042-4900

Nettelbeck, Anouchka Rebekka Encounters between lar gibbons (Hylobates lar) and binturongs (Arctictis binturong) Folia Primatologica, 69(6): 392-396. 1998. ISSN: 0015-5713

Pitra C; Lieckfeldt D et al Vaterschaftsnachweis beim Binturong (Arctictis binturong (Raffles, 1821) ) mit Hilfe eines genetischen Fingerabdruckverfahrens. Der Zoologische Garten, 66(5): 301-309, 1996. ISSN: 0044-5169

McNab, Brian K. ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND CONSERVATION IN FRUGIVOROUS AND MIXED-DIET CARNIVORANS. Journal of Mammalogy, 76(1): 206-222. 1995. WR 248 ISSN: 0022-2372

Embury, Amanda; Arnott, John Asian Tropical Rainforest stage I: tiger/otter exhibit at Melbourne Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook, 34: 165-178. 1995. ISSN: 0074-9664

Wilson, Cindy HAND-REARING BABY BINTURONGS. Animal Keepers' Forum, 20(2): 78-80. 1993. WR 239 ISSN: 0164-9531

Rahman, M.M.; Huda, K.M.; Banu, Q.; Asmat, G.S.M. Status of Binturong (^/Arctictis binturong^/) in Bangladesh. Bulletin (Wildlife Series), No 4, 1992. 8pp.

Sokolov, V. E.; T. P. Evgen'evan; T. I. Neklyudova; Phan Chong An and Vguyen Suan Tang STRUCTURE OF THE PERINEAL ORGAN OF ARCTICTIS BINTURONG (SUBFAMILY PARADOXURINEA, FAMILY VIVERRIDAE, ORDER CARNIVORA, MAMMALIA). Doklady Biological Sciences, 315(1-6): 735-738. 1991. WR 226 ISSN: 0012-4966

Lambert, Frank SOME NOTES ON FIG-EATING BY ARBOREAL MAMMALS IN MALAYSIA. Primates, 3 1(3): 453-458. 1990. WR 221 ISSN: 0032-8332

Jackson, P. Manas Tiger Reserve threatened. Environmental Awareness, 13+(1)+: 19-22. 1990

Smith, Gill THE BINTURONG (ARCTICTIS BINTURONG): PART 2. Ratel, 14(6): 168-172. 1987. WR 208

Smith G The binturong (Arctitis binturong): Part 2. Ratel, 14(6): 168-172, 1987.

Quinell, R.; Balmford, A. (Eds) Palawan forest research 1984. Final report. Palawan Forest Research., 1984. iii + 57pp.

WEMMER C; MURTAUGH J COPULATORY BEHAVIOR AND REPRODUCTION IN THE BINTURONG, ARCTICTIS BINTURONG. Journal of Mammalogy, 62(2), 342-352, 1981. ISSN: 0022-2372

AQUILINA G D; BEYER R H THE EXHIBITION AND BREEDING OF BINTURONGS ARCTICTIS BINTURONG AS A FAMILY GROUP AT BUFFALO ZOO. INT. ZOO YEARBOOK; 19, 185. 188, 1979.

Dutt, S. C. and Gupta, P. P. PARAGONIMIASIS IN A BEAR CAT, /ARCTICUS BINTURONG/. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 72 (4): 391-393. Aug. 1978. WR 171 ISSN: 0003-4983

Ivashin, M. V. SOME CASES OF ABNORMAL EMBRYOGENESIS IN /BALAENOPTERA ACUTOROSTRATA/(CETACEA, BALAENOPTERIDAE) IN THE INDOOCEAN SECTOR OF THE ANTARCTIC. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 56(11): 1736-1739. Nov. 1977. In Russian with English summ. WR 169 ISSN: 0044-5134

XANTEN W A; KAFKA H; OLDS E BREEDING THE BINTURONG AT THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK, WASHINGTON. INT. ZOO YEARBOOK; 16, 117-119, 1976.

Kleiman, Devra G. SCENT MARKING IN THE BINTURONG, ARCTICTIS BINTURONG. Journal of Mammalogy, 55(1): 224-227. Feb. 1974. WR 152: 50 ISSN: 0022-2372

KUSCHINSKI L BREEDING BINTURONGS (ARCTICTIS BINTURONG) AT GLASGOW ZOO. INT. ZOO YEARBOOK; 14, 124-126, 1974.

Ogilvie, G.S. The binturong or bear cat. 0000. : 1-3.

Himalayan yellow throated marten

Jha, Ajeya Status of the weasel family in Sikkim. Tiger Paper, 26(1): pp. 1-4; 1999 ISSN: 1014-2789

Schilo R A; Ruchljada O W Haltung und Zucht von Buntmardern (Martes flavigula) im Zoo Nowosibirsk. Der Zoologische Garten, 65(2): 135-138, 1995. ISSN: 0044-5169

Mead, Rodney A. REPRODUCTION IN MARTES. Martens, Sables, and Fishers: Biology and Conservation. Steven W. Buskirk, Alton S. Harestad, Martin G. Raphael, and Roger A. Powell, editors., p. 404-422. 1994. WR 244

Buskirk, Steven W. INTRODUCTION TO THE GENUS MARTES. Martens, Sables, and Fishers: Biology and Conservation. Steven W. Buskirk, Alton S. Harestad, Martin G. Raphael, and Roger A. Powell, editors., p. 1-10. 1994. WR 244

Buskirk, Steven W.; Alton S. Harestad; Martin G. Raphael and Roger A. Powell; editors MARTENS, SABLES, AND FISHERS: BIOLOGY AND CONSERVATION. Cornell Univ. Press, 501p. 1994. Available at $65.00 (cloth) from Cornell Univ. Press, 512 E. State St., Ithaca, NY 14851-0250. WR 244

Anderson, Elaine EVOLUTION, PREHISTORIC DISTRIBUTION, AND SYSTEMATICS OF MARTES. Martens, Sables, and Fishers: Biology and Conservation. Steven W. Buskirk, Alton S. Harestad, Martin G. Raphael, and Roger A. Powell, editors., p. 13-25. 1994. WR 244

Saha, Subhendu Sekhar ON SOME MAMMALS RECENTLY COLLECTED IN BHUTAN. Bombay Natural History Society. Journal, 74 (2): 350-354. Aug. 1977. WR 170 ISSN: 0006-6982

WEMMER C; JOHNSON G L EGG-BREAKING BEHAVIOR IN A YELLOW-THROATED MARTEN, MARTES FLAVIGULA (MUSTELIDAE: CARNIVORA) Zeitschrift fuer Saeugetierkunde, 41(1), 58-60, 1976. ISSN: 0044-3468

EMERSON K C; PRICE R D A NEW SPECIES OF TRICHODECTES (MALLOPHAGA: TRICHODECTIDAE) FROM THE YELLOW-THROATED MARTEN (MARTES FLAVIGULA) Biological Society of Washington. Proceedings, 87(10), 77-80, 1974. ISSN: 0006-324X

KUCHERENKO S P <DISTRIBUTION AND NUMBER OF MARTES (CHARRONIA) FLAVIGULA BODDAERT IN THE AMUR USSURIISK AREA>. IN: OKHOTINA, M. V. (ED. ). FAUNA AND ECOLOGY OF THE TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATES OF THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE SOVIET FAR EAST. ACAD. SCI. USSR, VLADIVOSTOK, PP. 102-106, 1974.

 

Chinese pangolin

Datta, Aparajita Pangolin sightings in western Arunachal Pradesh. Bombay Natural History Society. Journal, 96(2): 310. 1999. ISSN: 0006-6982

Gurung, Juddha Bahadur A pangolin survey in Royal Nagarjung Forest in Kathmandu, Nepal. Tiger Paper, 23(2): 29-32. 1996. ISSN: 1014-2789

Bing Su; Rui-Qing Liu; Ying-xiang Wang and Li-ming Shi GENETIC DIVERSITY IN THE CHINESE PANGOLIN (MANIS PENTADACTYLA) INFERRED FROM PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS. Biochemical Genetics, 32(9/10): 343-349. 1994. WR 248 ISSN: 0006-2928

Zhang, Ya-ping and Li-ming Shi GENETIC DIVERSITY IN THE CHINESE PANGOLIN (MANIS PENTADACTYLA): INFERRED FROM RESTRICTION ENZYME ANALYSIS OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNAs. Biochemical Genetics, 29(9/10): 501-508. 1991. WR 228 ISSN: 0006-2928

Chen Quan; Liu Ruiqing; Wang Yingxiang and Shi Liming STUDIES ON THE MITOTIC CHROMOSOMES AND MEIOTIC SYNAPTONEMAL COMPLEXES (SC) OF CHINESE PANGOLIN (MANIS PENTADACTYLA). Dongwuxue Yanjiu, 12(3): 299-304. 1991. In Chinese with English summ. WR 231 ISSN: 0254-5853

Heath, Martha E. and Sharon L. Vanderlip BIOLOGY, HUSBANDRY, AND VETERINARY CARE OF CAPTIVE CHINESE PANGOLINS (MANIS PENTADACTYLA). Zoo Biology, 7(4): 293-312. 1988. WR 212 ISSN: 0733-3188

Heath, Martha E. TWENTY-FOUR-HOUR VARIATIONS IN ACTIVITY, CORE TEMPERATURE, METABOLIC RATE, AND RESPIRATORY QUOTIENT IN CAPTIVE CHINESE PANGOLINS. Zoo Biology, 6(1): 1-10. 1987. WR 205 ISSN: 0733-3188

Bridge, Vicki Lyn and Lin Ming-Sheung NOTES ON REARING CHINESE PANGOLINS (MANIS PENTADACTYLA). Animal Keepers' Forum, 13(4): 114. 1986. WR 202 ISSN: 0164-9531

Chen Yuhan; Xu Jiaqiang; Chen Zhuohuai and Xiao Zhende STUDY ON GASTRIC CARCINOMA AND ITS ETIOLOGY IN CHINESE PANGOLIN. Dongwu Xuebao, 32(1): 96-97. 1986. In Chinese.WR 203 ISSN: 0001-7302

Cen Yuhan; Xu Jiaqiang; Chen Zhuohuai; Xiao Zhende and Cu Longhuci ON THE GASTRIC TUMOURS OF CHINESE PANGOLIN. Dongwu Xuebao, 30(2): 105-107. 1984. In Chinese with English summ. WR 195 ISSN: 0001-7302

 

Golden cat

Ray, J.C.; Sunquist, M.E. Trophic relations in a community of African rinforest carnivores. Oecologia, 127(3): 395-408. 20013 figs.; 4 tables. ISSN: 0029-8549

Schauenberg, Paul Bornean golden cats in Berlin. Cat News, No. 34: 31-32. 2001.

Jorio, Louis Wild cat survey of coastal southern Myanmar. Tiger Paper, 27 (2): 7-8. 2000. ISSN: 1014-2789

Griot-Wenk, M. E.; Giger, U.* The AB blood group system in wild felids. Animal Genetics, 30(2): 144-147. 1999 ISSN: 0268-9146

Chakraborty, R.; Chakraborty, S.; De, J. K. Identification of dorsal guard hairs of the species of Indian lesser cats (Carnivora: Felidae) Mammalia, 63(1): 93-104. 1999 ISSN: 0025-1461

Duc H D The status of large carnivores in Vietnam. Biosphere Conservation, 2(1): 45-49, 1999.

Grassman, Lon Stomach contents of an Asiatic golden cat. Cat News, No. 28: 20-21. 1998.

Slack, Gordy The rights (and wrongs) of cats. Calif. Wild, 51(3): 6-7, 48. 1998.

Bassenge A; Geers E; Kolter L Wirkung von verschiedenen Methoden des Environmental Enrichment auf Katzen (Felidae) Koelner Zoo. Zeitschrift, 41(3): 103-131, 1998. ISSN: 0375-5290

Brocklehurst, Mike Husbandry and breeding of the Asiatic golden cat Catopuma

temminckii at Melbourne Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook, 35: 74-78. 1997. ISSN: 0074-9664

Schloeder, C. A.; Jacobs, M. J. A report on the occurrence of three new mammal species in Ethiopia. African Journal of Ecology, 34(4): 401-403. 1996. ISSN: 0141-6707

Hart, J. A.; Katembo, M.; Punga, K. Diet, prey selection and ecological relations of leopard and golden cat in the Ituri Forest, Zaire. African Journal of Ecology, 34(4): 364-379. 1996. ISSN: 0141-6707

Davenport, Timothy African golden cat in south-west Uganda. Cat News, No. 25: 17. 1996.

Davies, Glyn GOLDEN CAT IN ARABUKO-SOKOKE FOREST? E.A.N.H.S. (East Afr. Nat. Hist. Soc.) Bull., 23(3): 51-52. 1993. WR 248

Vellayan, S.; B. Omar; P. Oothuman; J. Jeffery; M. Zahedi; A. Mathew and M. Krishnasamy THE GOLDEN CAT, FELIS TEMMINCKII, AS A NEW HOST FOR DIROFILARIA MMITIS. Malaysian Veterinary Journal, 1(2): 87-89. 1989. In English with Malay summ. WR 221 ISSN: 0126-5652

PETERS G ZUR FELLFARBE UND -ZEICHNUNG EINIGER FELIDEN (MAMMALIA, CARNIVORA) Bonner Zoologische Beitraege, 33(1), 19-31, 1982. ISSN: 0006-7172

Watson, Rupert, W. M. GOLDEN CAT IN THE ABERDARE FOREST. E A N H S Bulletin, p. 14. Jan./Feb. 1980. WR 180 ISSN: 0374-7387

Hardy, Ian W. GOLDEN CAT IN THE ABERDARE NATIONAL PARK. E A N H S Bulletin, p. 111-112. Sept./Oct. 1979. WR 177 ISSN: 0374-7387

HARDY I W GOLDEN CAT IN THE ABERDERE NATIONAL PARK. E A N H S Bulletin, 1979: 111-112, 1979. ISSN: 0374-7387

ACHARJYO L N FURTHER NOTES ON THE BREEDING OF GOLDEN CAT (FELIS TEMMINCKI) IN CAPTIVITY. Indian Forester, 99(1): 53-54, 1973. ISSN: 0019-4816

Acharjyo, L. N. A NOTE ON THE BIRTH OF A GOLDEN CAT (FELIS TEMMINCKI) IN CAPTIVITY. Bombay Natural History Society. Journal, 68(1): 241. Apr. 1971. From J. Mammal. 53(3, suppl.), 1972. WR 148: 50 ISSN: 0006-6982

Marbled cat

Jorio, Louis Wild cat survey of coastal southern Myanmar. Tiger Paper, 27 (2): 7-8. 2000. ISSN: 1014-2789

Evans, T.D.; Duckworth, J.W.; Timmins, R.J. Field observations of larger mammals in Laos, 1994-1995. Mammalia, 64(1): 55-100. 20004 appendices; 8 tables; 8 figs. ISSN: 0025-1461

Grassman L I jr; Tewes M E Marbled cat in Northeastern Thailand. Cat News, 33: 24, 2000.

Chakraborty, R.; Chakraborty, S.; De, J. K. Identification of dorsal guard hairs of the species of Indian lesser cats (Carnivora: Felidae) Mammalia, 63(1): 93-104. 1999 ISSN: 0025-1461

Choudhury, Anwaruddin The marbled cat Felis marmorata Martin in Assam-some recent records. Bombay Natural History Society. Journal, 93(3): 583-584. 1996. ISSN: 0006-6982

Records of the Zoological Survey of India. 1995, Vol. 95, No. 1-2, 121 p., plates

Sanzgiri, Mahesh N. OCCURRENCE OF MARBLED CAT (FELIS MARMORATA) AND HOG DEER (AXIS PORCINUS) IN BHAGWAN MAHAVEER SANCTUARY (MOLLEM), GOA, INDIA. Tiger Paper, 12(2): 24. 1985. WR 199 ISSN: 1014-2789

BARNES R G BREEDING AND HAND-REARING OF THE MARBLED CAT AT THE LOS ANGELES ZOO. INT. ZOO YEARBOOK; 16, 205-208, 1976.

WURSTER-HILL D THE G BANDED CHROMOSOMES OF THE MARBLED CAT, FELIS MARMORATA. MAMM. CHROMOS. NEWSL.; 15, 1, 14., 1974.

References on the biology and ecoplogy of selected mammal species of conservation importance

Story Of The Month

Colour Aberration In Tiger

The two most magnificent animals from India, the tiger and the peacock both abhor captivity. Both thrive only in the wild. Brightly coloured peafowls bred in captivity are known to hatch albino peafowls- pure white in colour. The tiger too , change their stripes -their very identity when not allowed free natural selection. Here is an interesting article by Dr. Singh. The detailed research findings are available in the form of a book which is compelling reading for all wildlife lovers.

COLOUR ABERRATION IN TIGER:
ITS BIOLOGICAL AND CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS

Dr. Lala A. K. Singh
Similipal Tiger Reserve, Baripada 757002,
Email: laksingh33@hotmail.com

While talking about the body colour of Tiger, we normally mean the yellow or tawny body with black stripes. Variations within normal colouration are attributed to geographical regions, the forest-habitat, and perhaps the season, as well. In this context, the white Tigers are also discussed and admired as a variation. However, there are at least fourteen known types of body colouration in Tiger, and there could be a larger intermediary range within these.

The various forms of colouration now known in Tiger are the
(1). Stripe-less White Tiger,
(2). Tigers with Reduced stripe on white background,
(3). ‘Lighter’ White Tigers, (4). 'Darker' White Tigers,
(5). Golden (Pallid),
(6). Normal (light yellow),
(7). Normal,
(8). Normal (deep yellow),
(9). Rufous,
(10). Brown with dark stripes,
(11). Brown without stripes,
(12). Melanistic,
(13). Blue, and
(14). Black.

All colours other than the “normal” are considered as unusual and aberrations. Colour appears related to body-size. The White Tigers have large body while the Black Tigers are diminutive. The normal colour of a Tiger and its size are the best compromise for Panthera tigris and are evolution-tested through Natural Selection, and also has the public appeal that has been so essential for Tiger Conservation.

The appearance of Tigers with aberrant colouration can be expected as a regular but extremely rare natural phenomena. Only in populations where inbreeding has a longer and stronger influence, the appearance of aberrant would be more frequent.

The reports of aberrants are not many because:-- # dismissals of observations have discouraged fresh reporting; # sighting of an aberrant Tiger is an extremely rare event, and # there is early elimination of aberrants from the population of normal individuals. Aberrant individuals are naturally eliminated from a population because the species are not meant to be like that. Elimination is effected through (a) unsuitable structural or physiological organization, or (b) early separation from the mother.

Today, threats to Tiger continues because of growing human population, and it is not known in what exact direction the evolution of Tiger is proceeding now. The possibilities of appearance of more numbers of aberrants cannot be ruled out if populations become small, fragmented and isolated. Large and contiguous patches of forest, if necessary with corridors, may improve 'genetic exchange' and reduce genetic erosion. Conservation of Tiger requires to be aimed at reducing the possibility of genetic erosion in the wild through habitat improvement.

Details in :
Singh, L. A. K. (1999):
Born Black: The Melanistic Tiger in India.
WWF-India, New Delhi, 1999.66pp.

(Picture courtesy: Alipore Zoo, Kolkata)

Tips On Beauty Without Cruelty

Fuller`s Earth Mask

Deepika Vohra served as the head of the Department of Beauty Culture at the International Polytechnic for Women at New Delhi. She also ran a beauty clinic at Delhi's Vasant Kunj for some time from where she relocated to New York for five years. Exposure to the world capital of beauty and cosmetics gave her an opportunity to compare the Indian beauty industry with the razzle dazzle of the New World. Reading and researching beauty culture has always been a hobby with her. The tips for beauty given below were selected from her repertoire of nature based recipes which are time tested to deliver.

'Nature Never Did Betray the heart That Loved Her.'-Wordsworth

The present times herald a veritable victory over chemical cosmetics in the form of natural beauty aids. Joy, happiness and confidence for sure contribute vastly to your beautiful appearance. A smooth supple skin is of course an added bonus. So, here are some tips to care for your skin through the seasons.

Basic skin types may be classified into five broad categories- normal, dry, oily, combination and sensitive skin. The skin is made up of protective layers of cells supported by nerves, glands and blood vessels. Your skin lives and breathes. Cells move up to the surface where they are shed and replaced. This topmost layer is protected by the body's natural oil and moisture. It is essential to carefully plan out a beauty routine to attain a flawless, petal-soft complexion.

The first step to your beauty routine is cleansing your skin. Cleansers are formulated to remove surface grime and dirt as well as dissolve stale make up from the skin. A gentle massage will help to float out deep down make up and other impurities.

How do you recognize your skin type?

NORMAL SKIN --- is finely textured with no visible pores, spots, or blemishes, soft and velvety to the touch, and unwrinkled. Normal skin has to be treasured and preserved, as it is liable to change, if neglected.

OILY SKIN --- is caused by overactive sebaceous glands that give rise to large open pores. Larger pores, in turn, lead to blackheads, blemishes and acne. The appearance of blackheads and blemishes is due to clogged oil and dirt in the pores which is not removed instantly by cleansing. Oily skin begins to have an oily shine within a few minutes after wash or make-up. This makes it difficult to hold make-up. However, oily skin has an advantage of ageing very slowly, but deep cleansing must be thorough.

DRY SKIN --- is a sensitive skin type which comes in blotches, tends to peel off easily and feels tight after a wash. Lack of moisture results in dry skin and this skin type is more prominent around the eyes, mouth, lips, sides of mouth, and forehead. Cleansing, toning, moisturizing form an integral routine of this type of skin. Dry skin is highly susceptible to diet, extremes in weather and harsh perfumed skin care products. Dry skin also has another disadvantage. Wrinkles appear faster giving you a prematurely aged look. A generous application of moisturizer will produce a skin which would be on par with the 'enviable' peaches and cream complexion.

COMBINATION SKIN--- As the word 'combination' suggests it is mix of two different skin types on one face. More often this skin type is the result of a badly cleansed and neglected skin. It is easily recognizable as it is oily down the T panel, that is the forehead, nose, chin. The skin gets this oily look down the T panel while the rest of the face appear and feel dry. Combination skin needs scrupulous cleansing. It is a good idea to use a face mask for oily skin down the T panel and a mask for dry skin for the rest of the face. This method of treating the combination skin works ideally to give a perfect, balanced effect.

SENSITIVE SKIN---- This type of skin is extremely delicate and vulnerable. It is easily susceptible to freckles, itchy spots and blotches. Dermatitis and allergies caused by chemical cosmetics are common problems of a sensitive skin. It is best to discontinue the usage of strong and harsh skin care products as well as perfumed creams and moisturizers.

Fuller's Earth Mask

Ingredients- 2 table spoons crushed Fuller's earth

3 table spoons milk

 Method- Mix the ingredients into a paste and apply over the face and neck. Leave on for 10-15 minutes before rinsing it off.  

Yogurt and Egg mask

 Ingredients-I egg white

4-5 tablespoons of yoghurt

 Method- Beat egg white until stiff. Add in yogurt and mix well. Apply all over face and neck. Wipe clean using a muslin cloth dipped in hot water, followed by the muslin cloth saturated in cold water.

For oily skin-Add one teaspoon of lemon juice.

For dry skin-Add one teaspoon of honey to the paste.

For combination skin- Make two portions of the paste, one with lemon juice for the T panel ( chin, nose and forehead) and the other with honey forthe rest of the face.  

Cleansing mask for Oily skin

 Ingredients-¼ cup oatmeal (finely powdered)

½ cup yogurt

2 teaspoons of lemon juice 

Method-Stir the oatmeal into the yogurt. Chill it. Apply to face and neck. Leave on for half an hour. Rinse off with tepid water into which the lemon juice has been added.  

Cleansing mask for dry skin

Ingredients- ½ tsp Brewer's yeast

1 tbsp honey

½ tsp vinegar

2 tbsp yoghurt (sour)

2 egg yolks

milk 

Method- Combine all the ingredients and mix well. Spread a thin film of olive oil or sesame oil over face and then apply this mask on it. Leave on for 15 to 20 minutes. Rinse off with milk and water.  

 
 

Deepika Vohra can be contacted at

deepika@indianwildlifeclub.com

Understand The Animals

The Gangetic River Dolphin (Platanistaidae)

This species inhabits the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers of India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan. The local name is 'SUSU'.

Description:
The Ganges River Dolphin has a long beak which thickens toward the tip, revealing the large teeth; the mouth-line curves upward. The body is stocky with a rounded belly, the flippers are large and paddle-shaped, and there is a low triangular hump in place of a 'true' dorsal. Ganges River Dolphins are grey-brown in colour, sometimes with a pinkish belly, and measure between 1.5 and 2.5m in length, weighing a maximum of 90kg.

They are spotted in the Upper Ganges near Ganmukteswar, 80 km from Delhi. Around Amavasi Day when mass bathing takes place in the river, they are not visible. Food & Feeding: These dolphins take fish, squid, crustaceans and turtles. They have also been known to chase and attack waterfowl. Indian skimmer, Spoon bill and dolphin feed on the same kind of fish.

Behaviour:
Ganges River Dolphins travel either as couples or individuals. Since these dolphins do not have a crystalline eye lens they are effectively blind; all they can do is detect the direction and intensity of light. Navigation, therefore, is entirely by a sophisticated echolocation system. This blindness is one of the reasons why these dolphins swim on one side underwater, with one flipper trailing in the muddy riverbed. The physical touch gives the dolphins important information about their surroundings and helps them find food.

Longevity:Unknown.

Estimated Current Population:
Approximately 2,000 - 3,000 individuals. Endangered. The Influence of Man: The Ganges River Dolphins live in one of the world's most densely populated areas - almost a tenth of the world's population lives within the Ganges drainage area. Rivers are constantly being dammed for electrical and irrigation purposes, and boat traffic, fishing and chemical pollution are increasing. Many dolphins are taken annually both accidentally and

Deliberately:
Fishermen are known to kill dolphins for their oil near Gorakhpur.

Under the Ganga Action Plan, WWF is taking measures to protect the Gangetic River Dolphin whose numbers indicate the pollution levels of the river. One of the measures taken is educating the locals including the politicians about the need to save the dolphin. Unlike the marine dolphins river dolphins cannot be tamed.

Dr. Sandeep Kumar Behera, Sr. Programme Officer, WWF-India is in charge of the Ganges River Dolphin programme.




Copyright © 2001 - 2017 Indian Wildlife Club. All Rights Reserved. | Terms of Use