Biofuels, Alternate energy

Impacts of fracking in USA

Posted by Susan Sharma on December 13, 2016

 
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Here is a report published on 13 December, 2016
U.S. EPA Releases Final Report on Impacts from Hydraulic Fracturing Activities on Drinking Water Resources 
EPA’s report concludes that hydraulic fracturing activities can impact drinking water resources under some circumstances and identifies factors that influence these impacts

WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is releasing its scientific report on the impacts from hydraulic fracturing activities on drinking water resources, which provides states and others the scientific foundation to better protect drinking water resources in areas where hydraulic fracturing is occurring or being considered. The report, done at the request of Congress, provides scientific evidence that hydraulic fracturing activities can impact drinking water resources in the United States under some circumstances. As part of the report, EPA identified conditions under which impacts from hydraulic fracturing activities can be more frequent or severe. The report also identifies uncertainties and data gaps. These uncertainties and data gaps limited EPA’s ability to fully assess impacts to drinking water resources both locally and nationally. These final conclusions are based upon review of over 1,200 cited scientific sources; feedback from an independent peer review conducted by EPA’s Science Advisory Board; input from engaged stakeholders; and new research conducted as part of the study. 


"The value of high quality science has never been more important in helping to guide decisions around our nation’s fragile water resources. EPA's assessment provides the scientific foundation for local decision makers, industry, and communities that are looking to protect public health and drinking water resources and make more informed decisions about hydraulic fracturing activities,” said Dr. Thomas A. Burke, EPA's Science Advisor and Deputy Assistant Administrator of EPA's Office of Research and Development. "This assessment is the most complete compilation to date of national scientific data on the relationship of drinking water resources and hydraulic fracturing."

The report is organized around activities in the hydraulic fracturing water cycle and their potential to impact drinking water resources. The stages include: (1) acquiring water to be used for hydraulic fracturing (Water Acquisition), (2) mixing the water with chemical additives to make hydraulic fracturing fluids (Chemical Mixing), (3) injecting hydraulic fracturing fluids into the production well to create and grow fractures in the targeted production zone (Well Injection), (4) collecting the wastewater that returns through the well after injection (Produced Water Handling), and (5) managing the wastewater through disposal or reuse methods (Wastewater Disposal and Reuse). 

EPA identified cases of impacts on drinking water at each stage in the hydraulic fracturing water cycle. Impacts cited in the report generally occurred near hydraulically fractured oil and gas production wells and ranged in severity, from temporary changes in water quality, to contamination that made private drinking water wells unusable.

As part of the report, EPA identified certain conditions under which impacts from hydraulic fracturing activities can be more frequent or severe, including:

  • Water withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing in times or areas of low water availability, particularly in areas with limited or declining groundwater resources;
  • Spills during the management of hydraulic fracturing fluids and chemicals or produced water that result in large volumes or high concentrations of chemicals reaching groundwater resources;
  • Injection of hydraulic fracturing fluids into wells with inadequate mechanical integrity, allowing gases or liquids to move to groundwater resources;
  • Injection of hydraulic fracturing fluids directly into groundwater resources;
  • Discharge of inadequately treated hydraulic fracturing wastewater to surface water resources; and
  • Disposal or storage of hydraulic fracturing wastewater in unlined pits, resulting in contamination of groundwater resources.

The report provides valuable information about potential vulnerabilities to drinking water resources, but was not designed to be a list of documented impacts.

Data gaps and uncertainties limited EPA’s ability to fully assess the potential impacts on drinking water resources both locally and nationally. Generally, comprehensive information on the location of activities in the hydraulic fracturing water cycle is lacking, either because it is not collected, not publicly available, or prohibitively difficult to aggregate. In places where we know activities in the hydraulic fracturing water cycle have occurred, data that could be used to characterize hydraulic fracturing-related chemicals in the environment before, during, and after hydraulic fracturing were scarce. Because of these data gaps and uncertainties, as well as others described in the assessment, it was not possible to fully characterize the severity of impacts, nor was it possible to calculate or estimate the national frequency of impacts on drinking water resources from activities in the hydraulic fracturing water cycle. 

EPA's final assessment benefited from extensive stakeholder engagement with states, tribes, industry, non-governmental organizations, the scientific community, and the public. This broad engagement helped to ensure that the final assessment report reflects current practices in hydraulic fracturing and uses all data and information available to the agency. This report advances the science. The understanding of the potential impacts from hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources will continue to improve over time as new information becomes available. 

For a copy of the study, visit www.epa.gov/hfstudy.

Nature Heals

Angelica herbal plant

Posted by Sheikh Gulzaar on December 08, 2016

 
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Angelica archangelica, commonly known as garden angelica, Holy Ghost, wild celery, and Norwegian angelica, is a biennial plant from the Apiaceae family, a subspecies of which is cultivated for its sweetly scented edible stems and roots.

More details: 
http://jkmpic.blogspot.in/2016/05/angelica-plant.html

Nature Heals

Fruit plants and wild nature

Posted by Sheikh Gulzaar on December 08, 2016

 
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It is the second most expensive nut and needs cold and hilly terrain with a few days of sub-zero temperature. Therefore, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir make the best choice in India. It takes three to five years for hazelnut plants to grow and yield fruit.

For more details:
http://jkmpic.blogspot.in/2016/12/fruit-plants-kashmir.html

Wildlife

Panaramic 150 Camera Trap - (One Camera Trap in place of Three)

Posted by JEETEKNO on November 26, 2016

 
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We are pleased to introduce Panaramic150 Camera Trap Moultrie's Panoramic 150covers three times the area of a traditional game camera - perfect for a fieldor open woods.

PANORAMIC 150 GAME CAMERA



The Panoramic 150 is a specialtyMoultrie game camera for capturing high quality, super-wide digital images ofdeer and other wild game on your land or hunting camp. With an incredible150-degree field of view, Moultrie Panoramic cameras cover more than 3 timesthe area of most traditional game cameras – giving that elusive trophy buckvirtually nowhere to hide. With rugged construction that stands up to theelements, and stealthy design that make it virtually invisible to game, thePanoramic 150 doesn’t just work hard; it works smart. It’s a big world outthere, so make sure you’ve got a game camera that can capture it: the MoultriePanoramic 150.

Super-Wide Panoramic Field of View:

Ideal for open woods or fields, thePanoramic 150’s super-wide field of view lets you see so much more of the worldaround it. The 150-degree field of view is almost 3 times more than most gamecameras, so you get a more comprehensive picture of your territory.

Decked out in Mossy Oak® Treestandcamouflage and powered by Moultrie’s advanced 100-foot Low-Glow infrared flashtechnology, the Panoramic 150 is designed to capture images of nearby gamewithout disturbing them. Day or night, the motion sensors detect prey within 45feet – and the lens silently rotates to capture the panoramic photos or HDvideos.

FEATURES:

Motion Detection:

The Panoramic 150 employs a passiveinfrared (PIR) motion sensor that’s triggered by heat and movement within 45feet.

MOTION DETECT DELAY:

Delay is a low-power "sleep"state entered after image capture. Longer delays extend battery life and limitthe images recorded in high-traffic situations (e.g. – on a very busy gamefeeder). The camera can be set for 5, 10, or 30 second delays as well as 1, 5,10, 30, or 60 minute delays.

MULTI-SHOT MODE:

When using the Motion Detect function,multi-shot mode allows the camera to record multiple photos per trigger. ThePanoramic 150 can be set to take 2 or 3 photos in succession after motion isdetected.

PANORAMIC MODE:

Still photos are taken when an animal isdetected. When any of the sensors detect an animal, the camera will take aseries of three photos, one at each position (right, center, left) and combinethese into one panoramic photo.

SINGLE MODE:

Still photos are taken when an animal isdetected. The number of photos taken when an animal is detected is configurablein Settings. The position in which the photo is taken (right, center, or left)depends on which sensor detects an animal.

TIMELAPSE MODE:

Timelapse mode disables the PIR sensorand instead triggers the camera through a countdown timer that will activateduring sunrise and sunset, and is adjustable from 1-4 hours.

HYBRID MODE:

The camera can be triggered by both itspassive infrared (PIR) motion sensor and a time-lapse program.

TRIGGER SPEED:

The Panoramic 150 resets rapidly afterimage capture, taking only 1 second after a motion trigger until the camera isfully ready to detect motion and capture more.

NIGHT ILLUMINATION:

The flash is equipped with 30 LightEmitting Diode (LED) lights. This 850nm Low-Glow LED technology is minimallyintrusive and can illuminate game up to 100 feet away in total darkness.

MOTION FREEZE / EXTENDED FLASH:

For night-time operation of the camera,you can select between reduced motion blur or extended flash range to maximizeimage clarity and visibility.

OPTICAL FIELD OF VIEW (FOV):

Features a 150-degree diagonal viewingarea recorded by the camera.

BATTERIES & BATTERY LIFE:

Camera requires 6 C-cell Alkalinebatteries that should last up to the capture of 9,000 images. This is aconservative estimate of photos that can be taken before the camera’s batteriesare depleted. Actual results vary based on user settings and environmentalfactors.


With Regards,


                            

Devenjeet

Deven Jeet

(Proprietor)

For JEETEKNO

P.O. I.P.E., Kaulagarh,

Dehra Dun, Uttarakhand, India.

PH: 91-135-2751893; FAX: 91-135-2751893

Mobile: 91-9897800710

e-mail: jeetekno@gmail.com; jeetekno@yahoo.com

www.jeetekno.com

CONSERVE FOREST & WILDLIFE

Travel

My trip

Posted by S.viswanath on October 23, 2016

 
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Kodaikanal ,, vattakanal..wow amazing nature 

Anthropomorphism

Oriental White Eye

Posted by Susan Sharma on October 19, 2016

 
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Bird brains? You will change your mind after watching this video.

Little Known Destinations

Pooyamkutty Forests in Kerala

Posted by Jithin Prem on October 16, 2016

 
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PooyamKutty is a less known destination blessed with scenic hill ranges, small waterfalls and abundant wildlife. I visited Pooyamkutty with my friends back in 2015 when we heard a few stories about the tribes who lives in harmony with the elephants. The forest is one of the main migration route for elephants here. Encounter with elephants are part of their lives now, but both of them live in harmony. Bamboo trees constitute a massive part of the vegetation which is a favorite diet of the elephants.

The Pooyamkutty forest is separated by Pooyamkutty River and you need to cross the river to get into the forest. We had to trek nearly 10 kms through the forest to get to the tribal village. Since the village is in the middle of the jungle, encounters with wildlife are part of their daily life. Major wildlife here includes leopards,macaques, spotted deer, wild boars, civets etc.

It was a one day trip, we reached there early by 9:00 AM in the morning and came out of the forest by 5:00 PM. It would be better to go early and come back before it is dawn, because it’s dangerous to walk through the jungle when it is dark.

Engineers and Environment

Trash Buster

Posted by Susan Sharma on September 09, 2016

 
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In 2013, a teenage Dutch student named Boyan Slat came up with an idea to corral the ocean's plastic pile-up:  What if we could use natural ocean currents to gather bottles and bags inside long, floating barricades? He raised $2.2 million via crowd-funding for a research expedition and founded the Ocean Cleanup.  The organization aims to launch its barriers in 2020, with a goal to remove nearly half of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch within 10 years. 
-artice in Fast Company Innovation by Design 2015

Eco-tour

Budget Tour to Kanha National Park

Posted by Uday on September 02, 2016

 
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The charisma of tiger is unparalleled, especially whence right through the childhood the animal has been a mythical figure always prevalent in your thoughts.  As you grow up the tiger becomes real, bigger and bigger, and you yearn to see it..at least once in lifetime.   

Please show me the tiger at least once that is what tourists from far off land say to me as a naturalist guide. “I promise my best,” is all that I can say.” 

I do not wish guests from far away to go away without seeing the tiger. For some it could one and only trip due to time, cost constraints and other places on the wishlist.  But let me tell you, in spite of all my efforts some tourists do go back without seeing the elusive big cat. It is impossible to beat the tiger every time come what people say.  But among the few unlucky ones many are able to come back or some have seen the tiger elsewhere.  That gives me solace. 

Not all inbound or Indian tourists are rich but they still yearn to see the tiger and all the wonderful animals.But for many budget tour is the only recourse to this wonderful experience.  So here is how we will make possible this tiger safari. 

Kanha National Park is a biodiversity hub and amazing terrain full of enchanting landscapes. You just lose your amid the magical and esoteric surroundings. 

Photography amateur or professional will store your memory for ever. Only professional filming equipments that are charged whence they carry special permission to make a documentary. Hence do not carry one if you are not making a film.     

You can travel to Jabaplur by  overnight rails which are not as pricey as the flights.  Also travel by local bus from the nearest destination Jabalpur to Kanha, bus ride though uncomfortable cost much less. I do it many times whence on assignments and am still fighting fit. He!He!       

If you look for accommodation online, you will find luxury hotels, a stay in one of these cost a nose. Hence search for budget hotels and you will find a few.

Nevertheless since on budget you will not be traveling on holidays and the busy New Year period, so you arrive here and get an accommodation in the hotel that suits your purse.  

Usually economy hotels have their own restaurant, but there are independent ones which offer a cheaper fare as well. The food is good, only you have to eat it hot..the curries I mean. Even on economy do not drink local water since you do not have immunity to local pathogens. Drink mineral water which is well sanitized.       

To make an expedition in park, both in the morning and evening, you need to book gate entry or ticket as it is called in general lingo. The State Government of Madhya Pradesh has made some changes in the reservation system at Kanha...in fact in all the popular reserves that are within.

Hence on budget stay reserve your ticked early on the booking system at MP Online website. This site is owned by MP Government since only it can issue a permit. Kanha is under the jurisdiction of the MP State Government. 

Whence confirming the ticket online book the single ticket. In this category you have to pay only for yourself presuming you are traveling solo. Other tourists will automatically be enrolled till the figure reaches six. Hence in this case the permit/ticket cost will be shared.

You need to hire an open jeep for excursions each time. On single ticket you need not worry since the jeep hire would be divided equally among all riders. 

Another option  if you have missed it online you approach the current window at the gate. This issue current tickets that are available under its twenty percent quota plus those which have not been booked or cancelled online.  At the current window you can opt for sharing the excursion and jeep ride.  This will fetch your cost down further.  I am sure you will be able to enjoy the park in less money.      

Whence online for Kanha accommodation booking you can ask the hotel management to get the ticket for you. This will save you lot of trouble. The hotelier naturally will do a good job for all prerequisites.    

Bird Watching

All That Birding In India Has To Offer: How To Choose

Posted by Uday on September 01, 2016

 
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With more than 1300 species the country contains 13 percent of the  World’s birds. If the sub species are brought into picture the figure reaches 2000. The diverse topography with four different zoo geographical regions and varying altitude the richness is bound to be.  

Birding destinations in the country become popular whence a large number of tour operators promote a region. In the present times Bharatpur is like Taj Mahal of India a must visit for the birders. This is followed by Pangot, Sat Tal, Eagle’s Nest, Munnar, Western Ghat, Dandeli, Rann of Kutch, Chail to name a few. 

Nevertheless, the destinations abound but some are not well promoted by the tour operators.  But they due twist the itinerary in order to bring more under the scope. In Northern India Chambal River Sanctuary is becoming popular for reptilian life and its amazing birds. 

With plethora of birding destinations it becomes confusing where to go and what to see. The circuit in India is chalked out as North, West, East and South the itineraries also include ancient monuments and tiger reserves in the vicinity. 

Another region in the heartland is Central India or Madhya Pradesh which is not popular with the organizers. The primary reason with this region is abundance of tiger reserves which shifts the focus on the majestic carnivores. But the little known fact is the widespread prevalence avian species here.


All tiger reserves are fantastic birding destinations and contain no less than 200 plus species. Besides the shift in focus the dense vegetation also mars the visibility of the avian species and hence increases the strain.  But nevertheless many hobbyists arrive to the tiger reserves to watch the birds both in winters and summers.     

Gujarat is another upcoming birding destination with Rann of Kutch requiring no elaboration. Short birding trips can also be made to Gir the abode of Asiatic Lions, Velavadar, Thol and Nalsarovar near Ahmadabad. Gir National Park is a fantastic destination with almost three hundred species to watch.   

For regular visitors to India choosing destinations is no problem since they can always chalk out the target species and visit. For those who are not going to visit the country again and again the best thing is to make a list of targeted  birds. This will help chalking out the itinerary. They can take help of Indian birding tour organizers for selecting the places and making travel arrangements.  
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Most of the places in the country are  easily approachable with sound tourism infrastructure. Going to off the beaten track is only possible whence you are in touch with major trip organizers or individuals interested in birding. 


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