February 16, 2017
Chilla-Motichur Elephant Corridor
The securement of this corridor is a major conservation milestone. It marks the culmination of a 12-year process during which the Uttarakhand Forest
Department and Government of Uttarakhand worked with WTI to build a consensus for voluntary relocation among the inhabitants of Khand Gaon III, a village based within the corridor. The villagers have now all been relocated to new homes in Lalpani, Rishikesh.
February 15, 2017
Kiwi or Chinese gooseberry (Actinidia
deliciosa) is grown widely in New Zealand, Italy, USA,
China, Japan, Australia, France,Pakistan,Iran, Kashmir, Chile and Spain.
mostly grown in the mid hills of Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, J & K, Sikkim, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh,Karnataka,Uttarakhand and Kerala. Having been very newly introduced in the country estimates of area and production have not yet become available.
Probably because they aren't mostly grown locally in India. They have to be imported. Import means taxes, more transportation charge, and higher risk of damage. All this leads to higher prices.
Kiwi fruit plant varieties cultivated
in India are Abbott, Allison, Bruno, Hayward, Monty and Tomuri.
Kiwi vine starts
bearing at the age of 4-5 years while the commercial production starts at the age of 7-8 years. The fruits mature earlier at lower altitude and later at high altitudes because of variation in temperature. Large sized berries are harvested first while smaller
ones are allowed to increase in size. After harvesting, the fruits are rubbed with a coarse cloth to remove stiff hairs found on their surface. Hard fruits are transported to the market. Subsequently, they lose their firmness in two weeks and become edible.
Since kiwi is a dioecious plant, it bears pistillate and staminate flowers separately. Commercially grown important pistillate and staminate cultivars are:
This is an early flowering and early maturing cultivar. The oblong, medium sized, fruits are covered with dense hairs. They are very sweet in taste with lower ascorbic acid content and medium titratable acidity.
Fruits resemble those of Abbott, except that these are slightly broader in proportion to its length. The petals of its flowers are overlapping and crimped along with margins. It is an early ripening, heavy bearer and sweet in taste. Ascorbic acid and titratable
acidity are on the lower side. This variety is most suited for Himachal Pradesh.
This cultivar requires comparatively less chilling period. The fruits are tapering in shape towards the stem end. They are longest among all the cultivars. The fruits is dark brown having very dense, short and bristly hair, highest in ascorbic acid and titratable
acidity. The bearing is very heavy.
Most popular cultivar or the world, Hayward is comparatively shy bearer with a tendency of biennial bearing. The fruit is broad and flat, being much wider in relation to length. It is superior in flavour with high sugar and ascorbic acid content. It requires
comparatively more chilling hours.
It is a late flowering cultivar but fruit maturity is not late. The fruits are oblong, resembling those of Abbot and Allison. Being a highly prolific bearer cultivar, sometimes it needs hand thinning for obtaining good sized fruits. The fruit is somewhat wider
towards blossom end with higher acidity and medium sugar content.
It is a good pollenizer for Hayward and Monty, the late flowering kiwis. Flowers appear usually in groups of 5. Allison : It is also used for pollenizing different cultivars.
Grow Your Own Kiwi fruit plants
Write us at : firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
POB 667 GPO Srinagar SGR Jammu and Kashmir 190001
More details: http://jkmpic.blogspot.com/2016/12/kiwi-fruit-cultivation-in-india.html
Availability : Varaties of kiwi plant Abbott,Allison,Bruno,
Other planting material also available : Apple
tree, Apricort tree ,Goji berry tree, Ginkgo biloba tree , Almond tree, Peach tree, Pear tree, Amlok tree, Howthorne tree ,Hazel tree, Zaitoon tree , Walnut seed and medicinal and herbal plants
February 07, 2017
Delhi surface drains-a beginning has been made to clean up
Delhi has three major surface drains. Najafgarh plus Supplementary, Shahadra and Barapullah. Najafgarh traverses a length of 40 km from Dwaraka to Wazirabad with a catchment area of 374 sqkm. According to the Central Pollution Control Board, almost
70 tributary drains join it and total 17,288 industries from across the Capital pour their effluents into it.
Apparently, all the major drains of Delhi have not undergone a comprehensive desilting and cleaning process since their inception. Delhi's drainage system was laid in 1976 by the Irrigation and Flood Department, taking into account the urbanisation limits
Ayala Water and Ecology Limited has now been engaged by the Delhi Government to spruce up an 8-Km stretch of the supplementary drain that joins Najafgarh drain and finally falls into the Yamuna.
Ayala specializes in phytoremediation and constructive wetlands. This involves planting specific shrubs and trees, besides placing elements like gravels and limestone, which will absorb chemicals and pollutants from homes and factories. This will be
an inexpensive, natural and benign method of cleaning the river.
Besides the floating and sedimentary sludge and solid waste will be collected and treated suitably so that it can be recycled in the form of bricks or bio gas.
January 24, 2017
Snow Leopards are natives to the cold climatic regions where human population is very scarce. They live in harsh conditions on earth. Their white-grey coat perfectly blends in with the snow-clapped mountains of Asia and protects them from
the adverse climatic change. Basically these wild cats are from carnivorous family and breed on sheep, ibex, hares, and marmots. They’re usually found at high, rugged mountain landscapes at heights of over 3,500 meters. With the increasing number of days,
months, and years, the numbers of snow leopards is diminishing and very soon they will soon become extinct. If proper measures are not taken to save snow leopards by the responsible citizens of the countries and government authorities, very soon our ecosystem
will experience a shift that will cause discord.
According to a recent study, there are only 7,500–4,500 snow leopards left and they are too under attack for various reasons. These snow leopards are found high in the mountains of the Himalayas and in Central Asia. They are sporadically
distributed across the globe in countries such as Central Asia, China, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Nepal.
Saving snow leopards is the need of the hour. These snow leopards are everyday under attack and their number is depleting rampantly for various reasons. One of the major concerns for their loss is climatic conditions. With global warming
scenario all over the world, it will first affect the high snow and mountainous regions. Unfortunately, these places happen to be the habitat of these snow leopards. If their habitat is destroyed or changed, they move towards other nearby areas for survival.
Again, these nearby areas are densely populated with humans. Humans feel a threat with the snow leopards and start attacking them.
The human-animal conflict is the second important issue that needs to be tackled. The snow leopard preys on mountain sheep and goats. With less or no snow leopards, these herbivores will feed on all the grasslands and vegetation, thereby
leaving no food for other wildlife. The same landscape makes available food and other important resources for the inhabitants; including medicine, heat, wood for shelter, and fuel. So by
saving the snow leopard, we’re benefiting the whole natural ecosystem in these areas and the people who rely on them.
Third and the saddest reason behind the decreasing number of snow leopards is poaching or illegal wildlife trade. As their natural prey becomes difficult to find, snow leopards are forced to kill livestock such as horses, sheep, goats,
and calves for survival. The farmers in turn hunt these snow leopards and put them down.
Saving snow leopard and its natural habitat is critical in protecting the environment and the ecosystem as a whole. There are many wildlife conservation groups that are working with local communities to monitor snow leopards and reduce
their killing. There are reports of the government bodies working in close connection with Kanchenjunga conservation area in Nepal and their inhabitants to protect the snow leopards and reduce the conflict between the animal and the local residents.
December 31, 2016
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Bhautik R. Desai
December 28, 2016
Story: How can a small species be defensive....here as everyone can see a bee eating bird is trapped in the web of a giant wood spider.... bee eater is a bird which feed on insects so the predator is a prey struggling for life. Mother nature always surprises
you; it is never predictable ..!
Every day is a new lesson for every animal in the wild....and this is how they learn..never ignore common species they are the base for us to learn and understand wild nature.
Birds often feed on spiders to gain protein and use web material to line their nests. However, "birds in these situations are likely to be aware of the web and do not become entangled. In most cases, spiders do not dine on small birds caught in their webs
and may even cut the web to drop the load a web-encased bird imposes on their intricate, gossamer-threaded insect traps.
Also, a bird is normally too big a morsel for the mouth parts of a spider.
BHAUTIK R. DESAI
Naturalist at Tadoba Andheri Tiger Reserve
December 28, 2016
Dogs are man’s best friend. It is a said fact that humans have 5 million scent receptors in their noses, but dogs have up to 220 million. These millions of sensory scent receptors is what makes them so special. A dog’s brain is an expert for identifying scents.
They even have an additional olfactory organ that is devoted just for detecting pheromones. The percentage of the dog’s brain that is dedicated to scrutinizing these scents is actually 40 times larger than that of a human! It’s been estimated that dogs can
identify smells 10,000 times better than nasally challenged humans. Sniffer dogs, also known as detection dogs, are trained for using its senses to their utmost capacity. They are employed to detect illegal wildlife poaching products, explosives, illegal drugs,
currency, or blood. Some sniffer dogs are used in drug raids to locate narcotics and individuals hiding from the police. These sniffer dogs are very useful even after their retirement. Their extraordinary abilities can be put to better use. These sniffer dogs
can be of help to find and locate wildlife poaching activities.
In the last ten years, Indian aurochs, the Indian cheetah, and the pink-headed duck have gone extinct. Animals such as the Ganges river dolphins, purple frog, the Himalayan quail, one-horn rhinoceros, and the Indian hornbill are listed in the critically endangered
category. Many of the tiger reserves in India are depleting and that too due to tigers been poached for their skin. Tiger poaching is carried out in large numbers in India. Rhino horns are smuggled outside India in exchange for a huge sum of money. Elephants
are killed in large numbers; leopard skin is highly valued and is hunted to make fancy leather wallets, handbags, fur coats, and jackets. Mongooses are poached and killed for hair, snake for their skin, tigers, leopards for their bones, claws, skin, and whiskers,
rhinos for their horns, elephants for their tusks, the list is endless.
Sniffer dogs are used to sniff out ivory and rhino horns as well as other illegal animal trade products.
Illegal wildlife poaching in India is prevalent because of many causes. These sniffer dogs work in association with other NGO’s, government authorities
and other agencies at various places such as wildlife reserves, airports, sanctuaries, nature parks, mountainous regions, forests, and wetlands. Unlike humans, they can withstand harsh climatic conditions and work round the clock. They can work with the same
capabilities in rain, snow, heat, and other temperature fluctuations. However, in the dogs’ species as well, there are different breeds of dogs for different geographical locations. Breeds such as beagle, German shepherds, and bloodhounds have more scent receptors
compared to dachshund and fox terrier. The climatic conditions in which they work also do matter. For example: German shepherds are used in locations that exhibit more heat. Also, these German shepherds have much more stamina to sustain that heat. In South
Africa, dogs are trained for skydiving to catch poachers. The advantage that these dogs possess over police officials or other trainers is that these dogs can catch the criminals even after they have fled. All thanks to their olfactory lobes!
December 13, 2016
Here is a report published on 13 December, 2016
U.S. EPA Releases Final Report on Impacts from Hydraulic Fracturing Activities on Drinking Water Resources
EPA’s report concludes that hydraulic fracturing activities can impact drinking water resources under some circumstances and identifies factors that influence these impacts
WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is releasing its scientific report on the impacts from hydraulic fracturing activities on drinking water resources, which provides states and others the scientific foundation to better protect
drinking water resources in areas where hydraulic fracturing is occurring or being considered. The report, done at the request of Congress, provides scientific evidence that hydraulic fracturing activities can impact drinking water resources in the United
States under some circumstances. As part of the report, EPA identified conditions under which impacts from hydraulic fracturing activities can be more frequent or severe. The report also identifies uncertainties and data gaps. These uncertainties and data
gaps limited EPA’s ability to fully assess impacts to drinking water resources both locally and nationally. These final conclusions are based upon review of over 1,200 cited scientific sources; feedback from an independent peer review conducted by EPA’s Science
Advisory Board; input from engaged stakeholders; and new research conducted as part of the study.
"The value of high quality science has never been more important in helping to guide decisions around our nation’s fragile water resources. EPA's assessment provides the scientific foundation for local decision makers, industry,
and communities that are looking to protect public health and drinking water resources and make more informed decisions about hydraulic fracturing activities,” said Dr. Thomas A. Burke, EPA's Science Advisor and Deputy Assistant Administrator of EPA's Office
of Research and Development. "This assessment is the most complete compilation to date of national scientific data on the relationship of drinking water resources and hydraulic fracturing."
The report is organized around activities in the hydraulic fracturing water cycle and their potential to impact drinking water resources. The stages include: (1) acquiring water to be used for hydraulic fracturing (Water Acquisition), (2) mixing the water with
chemical additives to make hydraulic fracturing fluids (Chemical Mixing), (3) injecting hydraulic fracturing fluids into the production well to create and grow fractures in the targeted production zone (Well Injection), (4) collecting the wastewater that returns
through the well after injection (Produced Water Handling), and (5) managing the wastewater through disposal or reuse methods (Wastewater Disposal and Reuse).
EPA identified cases of impacts on drinking water at each stage in the hydraulic fracturing water cycle. Impacts cited in the report generally occurred near hydraulically fractured oil and gas production wells and ranged in severity, from temporary changes
in water quality, to contamination that made private drinking water wells unusable.
As part of the report, EPA identified certain conditions under which impacts from hydraulic fracturing activities can be more frequent or severe, including:
- Water withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing in times or areas of low water availability, particularly in areas with limited or declining groundwater resources;
- Spills during the management of hydraulic fracturing fluids and chemicals or produced water that result in large volumes or high concentrations of chemicals reaching groundwater resources;
- Injection of hydraulic fracturing fluids into wells with inadequate mechanical integrity, allowing gases or liquids to move to groundwater resources;
- Injection of hydraulic fracturing fluids directly into groundwater resources;
- Discharge of inadequately treated hydraulic fracturing wastewater to surface water resources; and
- Disposal or storage of hydraulic fracturing wastewater in unlined pits, resulting in contamination of groundwater resources.
The report provides valuable information about potential vulnerabilities to drinking water resources, but was not designed to be a list of documented impacts.
Data gaps and uncertainties limited EPA’s ability to fully assess the potential impacts on drinking water resources both locally and nationally. Generally, comprehensive information on the location of activities in the hydraulic fracturing water cycle is lacking,
either because it is not collected, not publicly available, or prohibitively difficult to aggregate. In places where we know activities in the hydraulic fracturing water cycle have occurred, data that could be used to characterize hydraulic fracturing-related
chemicals in the environment before, during, and after hydraulic fracturing were scarce. Because of these data gaps and uncertainties, as well as others described in the assessment, it was not possible to fully characterize the severity of impacts, nor was
it possible to calculate or estimate the national frequency of impacts on drinking water resources from activities in the hydraulic fracturing water cycle.
EPA's final assessment benefited from extensive stakeholder engagement with states, tribes, industry, non-governmental organizations, the scientific community, and the public. This broad engagement helped to ensure that the final assessment report reflects
current practices in hydraulic fracturing and uses all data and information available to the agency. This report advances the science. The understanding of the potential impacts from hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources will continue to improve
over time as new information becomes available.
For a copy of the study, visit www.epa.gov/hfstudy.
December 08, 2016
December 08, 2016
It is the second most expensive nut and needs cold and hilly terrain with a few days of sub-zero temperature. Therefore, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir make
the best choice in India. It takes three to five years for hazelnut plants to grow and yield fruit.
For more details: