Press on Environment and Wildlife
Changes in conservation project (February Week 1 (2006)) The methodology to implement biodiversity conservation and sustainable coastal management project of the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Trust will be changed, reports The Hindu.
Its Director V.K. Melkani said here on Monday that the trust had set up eco development committees in various coastal villages of Ramanathapuram and Tuticorin districts and started implementing the project.
But, it faced some difficulties due to lack of proper mechanism to execute the project in the field level and involve all stakeholders including fisheries, pollution and other departments.
So, it recently conducted a brainstorming session. Experts and representatives of various departments discussed the problems.
Sejalworha of World Wildlife Fund and Anil Bharadwaj of Wildlife Institute of India were asked to rewrite implementation part of the project.
They were expected to complete the task in a month.
Mr. Melkani said the UNDP's Global Environmental Facility had agreed to clear obstacles in implementing the project.
The basic aim and goal of the project would not be altered and the new report would clearly specify the works of all stakeholders.
The implementation of the project would gain momentum from March.
The project was started in 2002 at an estimate of Rs.140 crore. Of this, the GEF agreed to contribute Rs.40 crore in a phased manner.
While the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Trust spent Rs.2 crore in implementing the project so far, Rs.5 crores was spent on the pilot project.
Power Delhi from waste, President tells Govt (Issue of the week, January Week 3 (2006)) The Pioneer reports that President APJ Abdul Kalam has called on the Delhi Government to consider generating power from municipal waste, which will not only supplement the city's power supply, but also curb pollution.
Speaking at the inauguration of the two-day international conference on Environment-Awareness-Enforcement held under the aegis of the Asia Pacific Jurist Association (APJA), President Kalam said, "Higher growth in society proportionally increases pressure on environment."
Recounting the country's economic growth, he expressed concern over the depleting natural resources and increased dependence on non-renewable resources like coal, oil and gas. "I am encouraging the Delhi Government to produce energy from municipal solid waste."
"In 10-15 years from now," he said, "we can visualise that India and China's population may become half of that on the planet." Terming this as a moment of "colossal environmental challenge", the President expressed fears that hazardous gases and effluents released by industries would possibly be more than the cumulative estimate of poisonous gases released from all developing and developed world.
Such an alarming situation could only be countered if we begin to increasingly depend on renewable sources in the present moment.
Giving examples from various states, President Kalam emphasised on the importance of creating awareness and educating masses on serious environmental issues. "We have a collective responsibility towards nature and through our integrated participation we can help our institutions," he said.
Chief Justice YK Sabharwal, who spoke on the occasion, echoed the same sentiments. Stating that despite laws framed to protect environment there is a little thought given to preserving the nature and its resources for the future generations.
"While Article 21 of our Constitution grants Right to Life, the courts have interpreted within its ambit Right to Healthy Living and this includes ensuring a clean, green environment for every citizen," he said
"The judiciary is conscious of this aspect and bears this in mind. Every Friday, a special bench hears pressing matters pertaining to environment," he said.
UP wildlife authorities wake up to vanishing gharials (January Week 3 (2006)) The ecological balance of a river is largely dependent on the presence of predator and scavengers like crocodiles and other similar creatures. While crocodiles are largely found in the rivers of South India, the northern and eastern rivers in the country are solely dependent on gharials, a long-nosed relative of crocodiles that is purely riverine in its habitat, reports The Pioneer..
Lately, with an increase in pollution in the Ganga and the Yamuna rivers, the gharials have completely vanished from these rivers, which has made these rivers full of decomposing fishes and rotting bodies of animals and humans to further pollute these rivers.
Now, in an effort to restore the ecological balance of the rivers in Uttar Pradesh, the Wildlife Authorities of the State are planning to introduce gharials, also called Gavialis Gangeticus, in the rivers.
A group of 56 gharials, brought from the Kukrail wildlife park in Lucknow were released by the wildlife authorities in the Chambal river near Pinahat in Agra on Friday as a step towards the rehabilitation of gharials in the river and to promote breeding of this reptilian creature in the river.
Talking to The Pioneer, KK Singh, Divisional Forest Officer (Wildlife), Chambal Range said that the Chambal wildlife sanctuary was a 180 km stretch of river passing through Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan and being an unpolluted river flowing away from the urban population, it was the best location for the crocodilian species to breed and a number of other aquatic creatures like Gangetic dolphins and turtles, of which, atleast eight species were living in the river, almost all of whom were carnivorous, that helped in preservation of aqu-atic equilibrium in the river.
He said that the population of crocodiles in almost all the rivers of UP had decreased in the past few decades but in contrast to the other rivers, Chambal had a high concentration of crocodiles and adding more of this species in the river would ensure that some of these species move over to the Yamuna and other rivers connected to the Chambal river. He said that the gharials that had been released in the Chambal had been collected from the Chambal river in the form of eggs that were later hatched in the Kukrail Park at Lucknow and raised till the age of 4-6 years before they were finally rehabilitated.
He said that at present, there were atleast 3,000 gharials and almost 1,000 "Muggers" (Crocodylus Palustris) living in the Chambal river that had reproduced rapidly after the beginning of the Chambal National Park project in 1979. He said that the reason for collecting eggs of crocodiles from the river was to ensure the maximum hatching of the eggs through artificial incubation at the Kukrail Park in Lucknow as the crocodiles were listed in the first schedule of Wildlife Conservation Act 1972, as an endangered species and it was only through human interference in their breeding cycle that they had been able to regain their numbers in the polluted rivers of North India.
Wood collection poses threat to national park (January Week 3 (2006)) The Sultanpur National Park in Gurgaon district is bearing the brunt of callousness of the Haryana Wildlife Department reports The Tribune.
A recent visit to the park revealed that some labourers were busy in collecting wood from the park to keep the fire of their hearths burning. When they were told that the collection of wood from national parks and sanctuaries was banned, they feigned ignorance.
Peter Jackson, a world famous ornithologist, had identified the potential of the park. Keeping in view its potential, an area of 352 acres was declared a bird sanctuary in 1971. It was upgraded to the status of a national park in 1991.
Nearly 250 species of resident and migratory birds have been recorded here. A long time ago even the Siberian crane used to visit the park.
Says Suresh C. Sharma, a New Delhi-based bird lover: “This is a direct interference with nature. The sanctuary is home to thousands of birds and various mammals like the blue bull, civet cat, jackal and hare. Most of the insects and reptiles use broken branches to hide.
Their unscientific removal will affect the invertebrate fauna, resulting in food shortage for birds. Some bird species like the spotted owlet use dead trees for roosting and nesting.”
Mr Sharma had spotted a pair of the white-browed bushchat, a rare bird species, in the park in 2001.
Section 29 of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, bans the removal of anything from the park, including dead flora and fauna. It says the habitat can be improved but with the permission of the state wildlife board.
Certain invasive flora species are also threatening the habitat of the birds.
“The invasive plant prosopis is growing uncontrolled in the park destroying both the lake and the grassland habitat. This requires urgent attention,” says Mr K.S. Gopi Sundar, Research Associate (India), International Crane Foundation, USA.
“If the rampant growth of prosopis is not checked, the system will change from a wetland to a scrub habitat,” he warns.
The Deputy Chief Wildlife Warden, Mr Malkit Singh, says unscientific removal of anything from the national park is banned.
“If somebody is collecting wood from the Sultanpur park, it is illegal. I will enquire into the matter,” he adds.
Orissa coast turns turtle grave (January Week 3 (2006)) THE BLOOD OF Olive Ridley sea turtles has again reddened Orissa's coastline. Over 2,000 carcasses of the endangered turtles have been found off the coast, reports The Hindustan Times.
According to the NGO, Operation Kachhapa, the turtles were killed by mechanised fishing trawlers and the bodies dumped by farmers away from the site of death. The deaths put a question mark over conservation of the turtles, which are found in India only on the Orissa coast. Over 1.29 lakh turtles have died in the country in the last 13 years.
In Delhi, the ministry of environment and forest refused to comment, arguing the matter was a state subject. "At most, we can seek a report," a official said.
Aghast at the deaths, environmentalists are blaming the government for ignoring the warning signals.
"Incidents of turtles being killed due to the use of deep water trawlers have been on the rise in the last 10 years. We have asked both the environment ministry and Orissa government to stop deep-water trawlers within 10 kilometres of the coast. But it has not happened. The trawlers not only kill the fish and turtles near the coast, they also destroy the bio-mass that supports them," said Blinda Wright of Wildlife Protection Society of India.
The activists have also slammed the ministry of environment's decision to allow off-shore oil exploration in the area, arguing that it could have an adverse impact on the future of the species.
Biswajit Mohanty, coordinator of Operation Kachhapa, was scathing of government inaction, alleging that endangered Olive Ridleys continue to be killed despite directions passed by the Supreme Court's Central Empowered Committee in April 2004.
The turtles of Orissa are falling prey to mechanised trawlers. And NGOs say the state's doing nothing to stop the slaughter.. SC's Central Empowered Committee gave directions to ensure turtles' protection in 2004 but nothing came of it. State authorities are regularly informed by NGOs but no action taken yet.
Spotlight on conservation of the wild red jungle fowl (January Week 3 (2006)) While the domesticated poultry battles the avian flu amid much global attention, the "original chicken'' - the wild red jungle fowl -- is practically counting its days before being pushed off the cliff to extinction, reports The Hindu.
With prominent scientists of the opinion that the true red jungle fowl is endangered and may be extinct in many areas with many being replaced by genetically mixed jungle fowls, voices of concern and apprehension about the fate of this wild fowl are being raised by researchers the world over.
With some literature indicating that the pure red jungle fowl had been extinct in Malaysia since the early 1900s, the main cause for the disappearance of this spectacular fowl is known to be inter-breeding and the destruction of the natural habitat.
And in the first comprehensive project in India to understand the extent of genetic contamination, morphology and its distribution in the wild, the Wildlife Trust Of India (WTI) in collaboration with the Wildlife Institute of India (WII), Dehra Dun, and MLN College, Yamunanagar, has initiated a three-year project to study the wild red jungle fowl.
The project will encompass mapping of the prospective areas where the bird is believed to be in higher density and morphology and DNA samples will be studied to understand their purity and patterns so that a viable model approach for their conservation could be established.
According to Rahul Kaul, Director of the Wild Species Programme of WTI , repeated hybridisation with the domesticated version found near villages in the fringe forests might have passed the hybrid genes into the wild populations. In the wild, the red jungle fowl are found associated with Sal forests and cultivated lands up to an elevation of 2,000 metres. They usually avoid dense forest canopies and prefer to be in the sun-drenched territories where there is an abundance of grains, seeds and insects to feed. The species are found in parts of Northern, Central and North-eastern India. Another variety, the grey jungle fowl, is predominantly found in South India.
One distinctive trait of a jungle fowl is the presence of an eclipse moult in males and lack of comb in females which is considered most reliable for identification, though other physical characteristics such as structure and colour of legs, carriage of tail, spur length in males may be less reliable.
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