By Bahar Dutt
Even as rampant destruction of the environment in its varied forms and associated
efforts continue to rise, there have been practises among communities in India where
people themselves have protected and nurtured biodiversity (Pathak, 2002). Across
the country there are numerous examples of areas that may not be designated as protected
areas as per the official records, yet are rich in biodiversity due to substantial
involvement or protection by local communities. In Mendha village in Maharashtra
nearly 1800 hectares of forest are being protected by a Gond tribal community. In
Kokrebellur in Karnataka the endangered Spot billed pelican are known as the 'daughters
of the village' as they come once a year to nest on the trees on the village commons.
The fledglings are protected by local villagers. None of the above mentioned areas
fall in the traditional categories of protected areas. Given that nearly 50% of
wildlife species are to be found outside the traditional protected area network,
the above mentioned examples demonstrate that community action can play a significant
role in protecting biodiversity.
Recognising such efforts the latest amendment to the Indian Wildlife Protection
Act, has introduced a new concept and calls for the creation of a new category of
protected areas namely a 'Community Reserve'.
The relevant provisions under these Acts have tried to move away from the conventional
exclusionary and non-participatory model of conservation. These changes are indeed
progressive, as they could help conserve and sustainably manage several hundred
community conserved biodiversity rich sites in the country, which may want or need
a legal backing. However, the way the provisions have been mentioned in the Act
is very unclear, and leaves much to interpretations; additionally, some aspects
of the provisions could be counter-productive. For instance, the Act calls for creation
of uniform institutions envisaged to manage Community Reserves which could create
more conflicts than resolutions in areas where there are already robust community
institutions. Further , Kalpavriksh an NGO that has been documenting hundreds of
community conserved areas across India has noted that community protection of forests
has been taken up on government land whereas the amendments in the Wildlife Protection
Act does not acknowledge existence of such efforts on lands other than under the
ownership of the communities or private bodies, including on government land.
Community based conservation is to be a reality in India the need of the hour is
to create legal instruments and guidelines that support efforts made by communities
for biodiversity conservation rather than impose new institutions or laws.
Bahar Dutt has been working for the past five years on issues
related to community based conservation and sustainable livelihoods.