Forum > Man Animal Conflict > Wild Boar Attacks on Farms causing huge Croplosses

Posted by Katidhan Tech on April 02, 2020

 

Wild boar is the utmost communal native species of wildlife that bring about large injuries to plants. Wild boar is an important factor and a particular concern to the agricultural industry regarding crops and frosts damage along with its alleviating tactics. Wild boar may destroy the agricultural crops by crushing or eating of plants. Likewise, these may harm to crops while wallowing and rooting which injury to plant roots, and form holes and grooves that harm farm equipment and endanger operations. Wild boar injury is more in fields that are in neighboring vicinity of forests ranges. Wild boars harshly influence trees and timber resources in many ways like disturbance of planted seedlings, girdling and rubbing of matured trees, chewing and rooting of sideway roots of fully-fledged trees, and tusking or scent marking with the tusk glands that injuries to tree bark. 

Mitigation strategies for wild boar losses comprise the creation of education and awareness among persons, co-operative securing of matured crops and use of local protective methods. Wild boar can be managed through small-scale exclusion, trapping and shooting tactics. Shooting is a popular method of controlling wild boar populations and in this way, pressure from hunting will let the pest to move away from where they are hunted, or at a minimum, will restrict their movements. It has been found that using dogs is the most effective for locating individuals or smaller groups of wild boars. In some cases, a female boar is trapped, spayed fitted with a radio collar and then released in the field. Since female boars live in groups, the spayed female will lead wildlife managers to local boar populations, which can assist in population control efforts. While recreational hunting is often a preferred method, it is also effective to some extent at controlling wild boar population growth. Trapping, however, is highly effective at controlling and reducing of boar’s population growth. The study of a spatiotemporal variant of boar-inflicted losses and recognition of reasons which boost the risk of harm delivers necessary facts for contributing to developing a further effectual strategy for handling of wild boar’s density.

The occurrence of crop damage by wild boars raised dramatically in the last decades, implying an increase in social conflicts, expenditures for compensation and a risk to natural ecosystems. Many researchers have explained this phenomenon by considering wild boar biology, behavior, and abundance. Little or no attention has been devoted to wildlife management and the agricultural mosaic. We hypothesized that the agricultural structure of the landscape and wildlife management planning, including hunting, can play a relevant role in causing crop damage.

Agricultural Damage

Feral pigs can damage agricultural crops by eating or trampling them.

They can also damage crops while rooting and wallowing which

*damages plant roots

*creates holes and ruts that can damage farm equipment and endanger operators

Wild pigs are a serious pest to crops cultivated in areas near the jungle. The wild pig is an intelligent animal. It is also prolific, has an excellent smell, sight, and hearing, and is highly adaptable. As an omnivore, a wild pig will eat anything. Wild pigs sleep during the day and are active at night.

They cause huge losses to farmers, as their attacks on crops are unexpected and damaging. An attack on a cornfield at the tasselling stage can wipe out 50% of the standing plants. Control measures such as fencing, baiting, and traps are practiced but are not very effective. In Malaysia, farmers are now using coconut fruit bunches to deter wild pigs from entering cultivated areas.

 

The current methodology that farmers are using to stop crop losses

1.Placing Dried Coconut bunches with coconut fruits

This new method of controlling wild pigs is based on placing a physical deterrent around a tree or where the pigs are thought to enter the field. The best deterrent is coconut fruit bunches together with dried coconut leaves ( As in the above pictures)

*Several coconut fruit bunches are tied together, with the fingers pointing outward.

*The tied-up bunches are placed around the base of a plant, or the probable point of entry to a field. Be sure that the fingers of the coconut fruit bunches are pointing outwards The fingers will hurt the nose or eyes of wild pigs if they attempt to dig the roots of the plant 

Merits of the Technology

This method is simple, low-cost, and environmentally friendly. Farmers can easily learn it with a simple demonstration.

2.Human Hair as Deterrent

Wild boar with poorly developed sight and hearing mechanism has to depend on its smell sensory mechanism only for movement as well as locating of food. In this process, it moves from one place to another place only by a way of sniffing on the ground thereby getting guided into the desired routes. Spreading of human hair collected from local barbershops is an effective and low-cost traditional method being followed by farmers. Technically this indigenous method does have scientific logic which clearly suggests that the human hair in the movement routes of the wild boar gets sucked through nostrils causing severe respiratory irritation.

Due to this the wild boar gets totally disturbed and loses its track by making distress calls, which will ward off other wild boars entering into the cropped area. Several farmers are

extensively practicing this method in different crops and controlling the damage caused by wild boar to the extent of 40-50% 

3. Spraying of local pigs dung solution

Territoriality is very high in wild boars which are being exploited under this method. The dung collected from local pigs will be made into a solution and should be sprayed on the soil to the width of 1 ft around the crop. This will confuse wild boars with a false assumption of entering into the territory of other pigs; thereby their movement will be prevented to

avoid territorial conflict. For sustained effectivity, it is desirable to go 2-3 sprays with 7 days interval between each spray. This method effectively controls the wild boar up to

50% 

4. Erection of used colored sarees

This method also is a farmer’s innovation, which has a behavioral background as far as wild boar is concerned. By arranging used sarees of different colors around the crop will make wild boars assume human presence in the area thereby not preferring to enter into such areas. Even though, not feasible in all situations it has some marginal benefit in the areas of human movement. By using this, the extent of damage by wild boar can be minimized to the level of 30-55%

5.Burning of dried dung cakes

The dried cakes made from local pig dung are burnt in earthen pots. This will ensure the slow generation and spreading of smoke during dusk time. The smoke coupled with the smell of local pig dung helps in sensitizing wild boar about the presence of local pigs. As a result, to avoid territorial conflict, the wild boars don’t prefer to move in such areas and extent of damage by wild boar can be minimized to the level of 35-50% 

6.Arrangement of three rows in “NIWAR” soaked in Kerosene

The NIWAR should be soaked in Kerosene solution for about 2 hrs and will be arranged around the crop in 3 rows by keeping 1 ft distance between rows with the help of wooden poles. Sufficient care should be taken to drain off excess kerosene. The dominating smell of the kerosene does not allow wild boars to identify the crop. This method is generally effective for 10-15 days extent of damage by wild boar can be minimized to the level of 25-45%

6.Arrangements of Coconut ropes soaked in a mixture of Sulphur + Pig oil

Arranged of coconut rope in three rows around the crop by keeping 1 ft distance between the rows with the help of wooden poles can be done. Preparation of solution with a sufficient quantity of sulfur is mixed with local/domestic pig fat oil is done and that mixture should be smeared on the arranged coconut ropes. This mixture generates the typical smell thereby repelling wild boars not to enter into the crop area. For effective use of this method two such applications should be done with ten days interval in between and extent of damage by wild boar can be minimized to the level of 60-80%

7.Planting of thorny bushes and xerophytes around the crop

Different xerophytic species like Cacti sp (Euphorbia caducifolia, E. meriifolia), opentia sp (Opuntia elatior, O.dillenii), Zizipus sp (Ziziphus oenopolia, Z. mauritiana), and agave sp (Agave americana, Caesalpinia cristata) can be planted on the bunds around the crop which will not allow the wild boars due to their thorny in nature. The wild boars after the unsuccessful trial of entry get injuries and making alarming calls, which makes the other animals flee. This method effectively controls the wild boar up to 50-70%

8.Traditional use of local dogs for scaring away wild boars

In endemic areas of wild boar attacks, farmers do follow using of trained dogs on a community basis to scare away the approaching wild boars. In selected cases, this method proved to be effective and sustainable. By using this method control the wild boar damage up to 50%

9.Creation of sounds and light through born fire:

To scare away the wild boars from damaging their crops farmer’s employee methods such as using firecrackers, making sounds through local drums, empty tins, making born fires and shouting. This type of method proven to affective on a community basis in protecting farmers' fields from the wild boars and effectively controls the crop damage up to 40-60% Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad for providing necessary facilities during the fieldwork.

Flashing of lights:

       wild boar have more rods (responsible for visual acuity for shapes) in their eyes than cones (responsible for color vision) to assist with their night vision. The increased number of rods allows them to detect the movement of prey in darkness where color vision would not be useful. 

 Parabraksh is one of a kind solar-powered autonomous flashing light system that is conceptualized and made in India. The product is environmentally friendly and it has a dual charging mechanism –solar and Micro-USB charging with an indicator LED lights. These lights are proven to be effective against wild boars.

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source:

http://www.fftc.agnet.org/library.php?func=view&style=type&id=20110805093251   

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https://www.popsci.com/feral-pig-problem/ 

https://english.mathrubhumi.com/news/columns/faunaforum/a-few-tricks-to-keep-animals-out-of-your-farm-english-news-1.806710

https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/telangana/protecting-crop-by-sharing-it-with-wild-animals/article17342027.ece 

 

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