Benefits and drawbacks of wildlife photography

Posted by Amrut Khodke on March 22, 2016

Forum Post

Wildlife photography has different charm accompanied by related benefits and drawbacks, read some and be prepared accordingly for a jungle tour ahead

Benefits and drawbacks of wildlife photography


It is really tedious to become a wildlife photographer. Just getting a SLR in hand is not sufficient for making one a good photographer. One must possess skills as well as creativity required for capturing top candid moments.Taking photography of wildlife is the trickiest of all. Although currently it is not much in demand, wildlife photography does hold some benefits and drawbacks, let’s read on and find these.


Benefits of wildlife photography

  • It makes one understand and blend with Mother Natur

  • The photography relates one’s life with animals  that are living in the forest

  • It can easily be completed in bendable hours

  • It permits one to closely watch the way animals stay alive in jungle

  • It is the perfect hobby which provides a complete mind recreation

  • The photography and the money invested in it is never a waste. The reason behind this is  all digital photos can easily be edited as well as deleted depending on the requirement

  • No extra cost is needed for processing and filling

  • The job of wildlife photography is really required in channels for instance Discovery  and Animal Planet

  • Wildlife photography possesses the prospective of fetching money only when it is done in a professional manner. This is done by people who have interest of capturing photos of wildlife in India.

  • It permits one to capture wildlife moments which are quite precious and can be shared with friends and all.


When people book wildlife holiday package to any India tiger reserve, they usually do keep a camera that will help them capture such moments which are truly priceless.



  • There is threat of getting wounded by wild animals

  • In some situation wildlife photography taken in an Tiger reserves of India may be quite an annoyance to wild animals

  • One cannot shoot best moments during night time

  •  In monsoon seasons, it really becomes very complicated to shoot best wildlife photographs

  • The competition in the wildlife photography is really high

  • One has to be stretchy and alert throughout the day


For any holiday in India especially a wildlife holiday, photography is an inevitable part of it. Thus if you are too ready for a wildlife safari tour then you must be prepared accordingly after reading the plus and minus point as mentioned.


There cannot be anything better than a Jeep safari in Tadoba National Park

Posted by Yeshwant Khodke on March 22, 2016

Forum Post
Taking a jeep safari in Tadoba National Park is like spending few days in an ambience where there is zero

pollution level and moreover it also offers a chance of meeting wild animals who are our wildlife

companion. Book Accommodation Tadoba tiger king Resort
Taking a jeep safari in Tadoba National Park is the most feasible option for those who want to discover

the beauty of the Tadoba National park. This jeep safari is no less than Tadoba jungle safari which takes

one in discovering the wilderness of Tadoba National Park. Jeep safari is indeed the safest way exploring

the national park since it keeps one away from all kinds of threat that comes with animals of the park

including tigers and other animals. The jeep safari is the best option to explore the park, however

wandering all alone can expose one to threats which may possibly occur.

The jeep safari gives one the chance of viewing the topography which is really liked by adventure lovers.

Although it is impossible for one to travel the entire forest and spot maximum animals but wandering in

the forest on feet is really tiring and risky as well.

Experienced guides who have experience in organizing such safari tours, they give guests a chance for

enjoying wildlife safari where guests can stare at the wild fauna and flora while sitting in the jeep. Who

ever chooses safari ride experiences the game view which are memories that will last for lifetime.

During this India wildlife safari a tourist can easily take seven to eight persons along with her/him.

These tourists will  be escorted by trained guides who will accompany them throughout the journey

making them aware about the beauty of Tadoba which is simply amazing.

These trained guides are organized by renowned  resort in tadoba who accompany the driver and guests

to take the jeep to a desired location in the forest.

These guides ensure that guests are far away from any possible threat and throughout the journey they are

conscientious enough for reacting to any unexpected danger. This type of safari tour where everything is

properly planned and arranged makes one experience the tour in the best possible manner. Such tour

makes one feel the thrill of wildlife which so far they have only heard and or read.

Tadoba National Park, the national park near Nagpur is the largest and most famous national park in

Maharashtra. The flora and fauna of this park is truly amazing, offers a complete relaxation zone to those

who need a break from the hustle and bustle of city life. Spending few days in this national park is no less

than health tonic for the body, mind and soul. One not only gets a chance to see tigers in India but also

gift oneself a chance to spend few days in the arms on Mother Nature where the ambience has zero

pollution level. The jeep safari in this national park is taking a joy ride and meeting wildlife companion

who are responsible for the survival of human beings.


Common Doubts

Posted by Pranay Rai on February 21, 2016

Forum Post

1) The difference between a Leopard, a Jaguar, a Cheetah and a Panther. Are they all the same as the people tend to think?
-Certainly No, they aren’t the same. Here’s the difference:

Scientific Name: Panthera Pardus;
The leopard is the smallest of the four ‘big cats’ in the ‘Panthera’ family, along with tigers, lions and jaguars.
Differentiating Characteristic: They look similar to the jaguar, however they are smaller and lighter and the fur patterning is slightly different; on a leopard, the ‘rosettes’ (circular markings) are smaller and are more closely spaced, and don’t usually have the black spots in the center of the rosettes like jaguars do. Leopards rosette pattern and overall color can vary slightly, however, depending on where they live.

Scientific Name: Panthera Onca;
Differentiating Characteristics: The jaguar is often confused with the leopard due to the markings on the coat. Jaguars are, however, heavier, larger and sturdier than leopards, and the ‘rosettes’ on their patterning are larger, less closely packed, and usually have black dots in the centers.

Scientific Name: Accinonyx Jubatus
Differentiating Characteristic: The fur is short and coarse, and has a pattern of evenly spaced black spots.

There is no actual species called the panther, however ‘panther’ is a name given to either leopards or jaguars which are black in color due to an excess of the dark pigment melanin. They can also be referred to as melanistic leopards/melanistic jaguars.
The coat is almost completely black, however sometimes the rosette markings can just be seen if you look closely

2) What is the difference between a Crocodile and an Alligator?
A Crocodile has a V-shaped snout while an Alligator has a U-shaped, rounder snout.
When a Crocodile closes its mouth, the fourth tooth in its lower jaw can still be seen, which is not seen in an Alligator.

3) Difference between a Tortoise and a Turtle.
Dwells well on land;
Heavy, dome shaped shells;
Short and sturdy feet with bent legs.
Dwells well in the water;
Mostly flat, streamlined, light-weight shells;
Webbed feet with long claws.


Ravishing Ranthambore - Sight to behold

Posted by samanvay bhutani on December 28, 2015

Forum Post
Dear Readers,

Thank you for turning up and reading my article.

My love for wildlife was merely an accident. I along with a few friends just landed up at Ranthambore National Park, Sawai Madhopur Distt. Rajasthan India. This was a very unusual trip for me since i have always loved luxury and relaxing holidays, but little did i knew that once i enter the forest  lovingly called as Ranthambore Tiger Reserve, I instantly felt a strong connect with this place.
  I hardly had any interest in wildlife and was doing absolutely nothing except for looking at a few deer's roam around and a few birds here and there and then to my surprise i was asked to sit back tight as the gypsy caught up with unusual adrenaline and it seemed like i was on the last ride of my life.
 For good two minutes i was rather angry for being there all covered by dust and splashes but than it all came to a halt and in a split second it changed my outlook for wildlife forever, A gigantic roar from across the bushes was enough to send chills down my spine,lips sealed i looked to the other side of waters(Rajbagh Lake) and it was a sight to behold and treasure. A female tigress(T-19) aka Krishna showed up frowning towards the maddened rush of gypsy and canters, As a few hundred eyes lit up seeing the beast walk around the bushes. It was an amazing thing to experience but what happened next was a mere dream.

The light started to fade away and as the tigress walked, from the bushes i heard another unusual sound and yes there it was a dream for many wildlife lovers, She was followed by 3 beautiful cubs. What more could you ask for, I stood admiring the beautiful relationship of the mother and her 3 adorable cubs who walked beside her in a straight line unaware of surroundings and soon disappeared in the habitat i now know as Malik Talab at Zone no. 3 of RNP.

Amidst the hustle bustle of my daily life coming into a jungle where i could literally hear myself breath,inhaling that fresh crisp air that brought peace to my mind, a feeling of a different world, a glimpse of a relation of a mother and baby which wasn't too different from real life human relations and that was the point RNP became a addiction and a wonderful 2nd home to me, I visit almost every month familiar to every Zone(1-10) and very familiar to almost all named tigers, May it be courageous story of T-16(Machli) or the Ravishing T-24(Ustaad) or the hunkT-72(Sultan) and many family like names to me now.

 Do love Nature, Protect Wildlife, Respect Animals and pledge to help make earth a better place for all to live in..!



Leopards are in a spot of bother-Pt.1

Posted by Soumya Banerjee on October 01, 2015

Forum Post

The leopard in the above picture is the very embodiment of helplessness and misery. A young subadult, no more than 3 years old, it probably made its way from Rajasthan’s Kumbhalgarh National Park to Rajsamand district’s Sardul Kheda village, where its head got stuck in a pot, probably while it was looking for water.
This story has a happy ending ; the villagers who found the shell-shocked leopard roaming around with its head trapped in the pot informed the Forest Department, whose personnel tranquilized the leopard and set it free in Kumbhalgarh’s forests.

But numerous incidents of leopard “straying” dont end in the same way; in June this year, a leopard that had entered Tatuarah village in West Bengal’s Purulia district was brutally killed and strung up on a tree. Its paws and tail were hacked off. In August, another leopard was beaten to death in Assam’s Sivasagar, which has been a hub of man-leopard conflict for a long time.

The Purulia leopard, which met a grisly end.  Pic : deccanchronicle

The Purulia leopard, which met a grisly end.
Pic : deccanchronicle

According to estimates by the NTCA, India’s forests may host 12-14000 leopards,
though there is a lot of debate surrounding the veracity of this figure, as it is based on the arbitrary extrapolation of an estimated population of 7,910 leopards dwelling in tiger habitat.

One of Bandipur's leopards, captured on a camera-trap unit.  Pic : Ullas Karanth

One of Bandipur’s leopards, captured on a camera-trap unit.
Pic : Ullas Karanth

The most adaptable big cat, leopards are capable of residing in almost every conceivable type of habitat, ranging from the tropical evergreen forests of the Western Ghats and Arunachal Pradesh, to dry scrubland surrounding villages in Rajasthan and Gujarat, and the tea gardens of Assam and North Bengal. Leopard-human conflict is extremely common, as more and more of them are forced to dwell cheek-by-jowl with humans who destroy their forests and hunt their prey. Panicked residents of cities and villages who spot the big cat in their midst frequently attack it, without realising that the vast majority of leopards don’t see humans as prey. Untrained, under-equipped and overstretched forest department personnel are often forced to confront bloodthirsty mobs without police support. The ever-increasing nature of human population means that such incidents are becoming more commonplace.


Asha----The Last Hope for Central India's Wild Buffaloes?

Posted by Soumya Banerjee on September 07, 2015

Forum Post

The boma in Chattisgarh’s Udanti Wildlife Sanctuary has a unique resident-  Asha, one of Central India’s last wild buffaloes. At first glance, she looks strikingly similar to her domestic kin, but a closer inspection reveals the massive spread of her horns and huge bulk, which are unmistakeable characteristics of the wild buffalo.

Asha’s proud ancestors would once have roamed across much of Central India and Northeastern India. The eminent hunter-naturalist Dunbar-Brander, writing in the 1920’s, wrote of their abundance in the forests east of Balaghat, with their biggest stronghold being Bastar.

Unfortunately, the wild buffalo’s range and population have undergone a massive contraction since. A survey in 2007 by the NGO Wildlife Trust of India (WTI), estimated their total population in Central India as being less than 50 individuals. Indravati, home to the largest population ( of about 25-30 individuals) , was in the grip in left-wing extremism, and hence, no conservation programme could be taken up there. Udanti in Raipur district was found to have 7 wild buffaloes, of which only 1 was female. The decline has been particularly steep in recent times, since in 1993, Chattisgarh itself was believed to be home to around 250 buffaloes, with both Indravati and Udanti having approximately 100 individuals each. Healthy populations of these giant bovines continue to exist in quite a few Protected Areas in the Northeast, such as Kaziranga, Manas and Dibru Saikhowa in Assam, Balpakram in Meghalaya and Dayang Ering in Arunachal Pradesh.

A wild buffalo with its calf in Kaziranga National Park. Pic : alamy.com

A wild buffalo with its calf in Kaziranga National Park.
Pic : alamy.com

However, many of the Northeast’s 3000-3500 wild buffaloes are believed to have been adversely affected by interbreeding with their domestic kin, and the remaining populations are also threatened by the destruction of their wet grassland habitat and poaching.

Asha, with one of her calves, at Udanti. Pic : Dr R.P Mishra, WTI

Asha, with one of her calves, at Udanti.
Pic : Dr R.P Mishra, WTI

WTI, with the assistance of the Chattisgarh Government, swung into action immediately. A “Wild Buffalo Conservation Project” was framed. Conservation initiatives could be undertaken only in Udanti, as it was the only habitat of wild buffaloes which was free of naxal violence at that time (sadly,  naxals have extended their control over much of udanti, and neighbouring sitanadi, since 2009-10. However, attempts to conserve the wild buffalo continue).

Given the very low population in Udanti, conservationists were determined to prevent any unnatural deaths, which could lead to the extinction of the population there. A “boma”- an artificial enclosure was constructed for the last female buffalo of Udanti, aptly named “Asha”, or hope. She has given birth four times since. Conservationists, however, could truly rejoice only when she gave birth to a female calf, named “Kiran” for the first time earlier this year. Her previous three calves had all been male. The male calves grew up in the boma with her, before joining the herd, which spends most of its time in an adjoining grassland, with some boisterous males frequently visiting the adjoining villages to mate with the female domestic buffaloes there.

One of Asha's calves gets a health check-up. Pic : Dr R.P Mishra, WTI

One of Asha’s calves gets a health check-up.
Pic : Dr R.P Mishra, WTI

Not wanting to take any chances, Karnal-based NDRI (National Dairy Research Institute) cloned Asha in January 2015, producing a female calf named “Deepasha”. These three females represent the last hope for Chattisgarh’s beleaguered wild buffaloes. Asha herself is 13 years old, and a female wild buffalo is normally reproductively viable for about 15-17 years of her lifespan, which is usually 20-22 years.

Even though administrative apathy and a steady rise in naxal presence in the surrounding forests have stymied initiatives, several attempts have nonetheless been made to preserve the buffaloes of Udanti. These involve the inoculation of livestock residing in fringe villages, the deweeding of grasslands, and the providing of incentives to villagers encouraging them to sell off domestic buffaloes, so that interbreeding between domestic and wild buffaloes, leading to a contamination in the genetic stock of the latter doesn’t occur. Attempts are also being made to procure genetically pure wild buffalos from the Northeast to boost Udanti’s tiny population.
In spite of so many measures, however, the path ahead is still treacherous.

In 2009, a tiger reserve, covering 1,842 sq. km (with a core area of 851 sq. km) was eked out of Udanti and adjoining Sitanadi wildlife sanctuary. The Udanti-Sitanadi tiger reserve suffers from several management lacunae, however. These include a highly complex administrative set-up which is not conducive to tiger conservation, with the Field Director’s office being located in distant Raipur. Moreover, protection infrastructure such as anti-poaching camps and vehicles for patrolling, is severely lacking. The DFO’s managing these sanctuaries are often burdened with non-wildlife conservation related tasks, dealing with the management of the surrounding territorial forests. A massive overhaul of the protection mechanisms currently in place need to be carried out by the State Government.

This will be very hard to carry out, however, given the ongoing naxal insurgency in the landscape. Udanti-Sitanadi should not be written off, however. Along with the contiguous Sunabeda-Khariar forests in western Odisha, it forms part of a compact forest block extending over 3000 sq. km, which serves as an important habitat for many species of Central Indian flora and fauna. Proposals to denotify such “lesser” forests are based on a poor understanding of their ecological potential, and should not be acted upon.
Tigers with cubs have been reported from Udanti and surrounding forests in recent times, and, for the first time, a tiger was camera trapped in 2014, an event which put to rest niggling doubts regarding the presence of tigers in the landscape.

A map of the Udanti-Sitanadi Tiger Reserve. Pic : cgforest.com(Chhatisgarh Forest Department)

A map of the Udanti-Sitanadi Tiger Reserve.
Pic : cgforest.com(Chhatisgarh Forest Department)

Attempts have also been made to conserve the other viable population of wild buffaloes in Central India, in the Indravati landscape. Indravati itself may be out of bounds to the Forest Department,  but neighbouring Kolamarka,  in Maharashtra’s Gadchiroli district, frequently plays host to a couple of herds. A 181 sq. km area in Kolamarka was declared a conservation reserve in 2013, for the conservation of wild buffaloes. Inspite of recurring incidents of naxal violence, a dedicated team, led by RFO Atul Deokar, have been diligently monitoring the wildlife of the region, while undertaking numerous conservation initiatives with the help of the local villagers. Kolamarka is also an important habitat for Maharashtra’s state animal, the Indian giant squirrel ( Ratufa Indica). To sustain these initiatives, support from the State Government is key. Kolamarka’s forests are threatened by habitat destruction and poaching, and conserving the small wild buffalo population here (estimated at around 10-15 individuals), will be a stiff challenge.

“Treasures of Kolamarka”-a book detailing the biodiversity of Kolamarka conservation reserve in Maharashtra’s Gadchiroli and is a product of the untiring efforts of RFO Atul Deokar and his team.
Pic : RFO Atul Deokar

Of late, the Central Government has also taken an interest in wild buffalo conservation, with the buffalo being one of the five target species for which recovery programmes have been implemented. Moving these plans from the cramped confines of the bureaucrat’s office to the field in the badlands of Udanti-Sitanadi is of the utmost essence.

The Central Indian wild buffalo has never received the same amount of conservation support as the tiger or the elephant, with the result that it is poised on the brink of extinction in a region that was once its historical stronghold.

Asha, the last adult female of Udanti, embodies the hope that the noble bovine will recover from the brink of extinction, and reclaim those forests which they once lorded over.


Memories of a tiger census in the Sunderbans

Posted by Soumya Banerjee on August 30, 2015

Forum Post

After filling up our boat with foodstuffs and water, we – myself, two forest guards, the owner of our launch, and his assistant, bid adieu to civilisation, leaving the small town of pakhiralay (located opposite to the entrance to sajnekhali wildlife sanctuary) far behind, as we journeyed into the heart of the throbbing wilderness that constitutes the Sunderbans Tiger Reserve. This reserve, spread over 2,585 sq. km, is the only place in the world where wild tigers exist in a mangrove habitat. We were participating in the initial phase of the quadrennial tiger census carried out by the NTCA (National Tiger Conservation Authority).

The world's only mangrove tigerland.

The world’s only mangrove tigerland.

Enumerating wildlife scientifically involves demarcating “transects”, or pathways, in the forest and then noting down signs and direct sightings of the various species which are encountered while the transect is being negotiated. In the sunderbans, the various transects coincide with the innumerable creeks which dot the mangrove forests.

A map showing the transects in Panchamukhani block of Sajnekhali Wildlife Sanctuary.

A map showing the transects in Panchamukhani block of Sajnekhali Wildlife Sanctuary, STR.

Our transects lay mostly in the Panchamukhani and Pirkhali forest blocks, a part of the 362 sq. km Sajnekhali Wildlife Sanctuary, which forms the north-western part of the Sunderbans Tiger Reserve.
We had to fill up several forms stating the time and GPS location of each of our sightings of the various species and their signs. At half-hour intervals, we also had to state details of the flora noticed- the various mangrove species encountered, how tall they were, etc.

Such sheets needed to be filled diligently!!!

Such sheets needed to be filled diligently!!!

We negotiated each river bend in extreme caution, hoping to spot tigers at the very next one. Unfortunately, the big cat itself remained elusive. But tiger pugmarks were everywhere-we even saw the pugs of a tigress and her three cubs at a riverbank. Another set of pugs appeared to belong to a mating pair. These are the welcome signs of a thriving population.

Pugmarks left by the king of the mangroves.

Pugmarks left by the king of the mangroves.

Not that this population isn’t affected by any threats, though. Man-animal conflict is a significant problem in the Sunderbans, for this is an ecosystem where man is still preyed upon by quite a few species- the Bengal tiger and the estuarine crocodile being the foremost among them. We saw two crocodiles during our boat survey, however, they were extremely wary and rushed into the water as soon as they saw us.

An estuarine crocodile basks in the sun opposite the Nature Interpretation Center at Sajnekhali.

An estuarine crocodile basks in the sun opposite the Nature Interpretation Center at Sajnekhali.

The vast majority of those who get killed by tigers and crocodiles in the Sunderbans are honey-collectors and fishermen. Crab fishing often yields fair returns, but it is an extremely dangerous occupation, which, sadly, the poorest of the poor have no option but to take recourse to. Numerous ecodevelopment initiatives have been launched by the authorities in the fringe areas of the Sunderbans in the recent past; however, many people continue to remain heavily dependent upon the forest. Sometimes, poachers sneak into the reserve in the guise of crab fishers. While the direct targeting of tigers for their skin and bones has never been a common occurrence in the Indian sunderbans, there should be no let up in vigil.

The fisherfolk of the Sunderbans.

The fisherfolk of the Sunderbans.

Naturally, there are few permanent residences for the forest staff of the Sunderbans which lie on terra firma. Several boats have been converted to “floating anti poaching camps” , for more effective patrolling. Nevertheless, the average age of a forest guard in the Sunderbans is 52 years, and several posts lie vacant.
After having met no humans during the first day of our survey, we stopped at the first floating camp we came across on the second day. The guards there told us that a tiger had crossed the creek where the camp lay only half an hour ago. And sure enough, we saw his huge saucer-shaped pugmarks on the opposite shore.
Our next encounter with Homo sapiens was of a different kind, for a boatload of tourists chanced upon us, as we were headed off towards our next transect. They initially thought that we were an errant tourist-carrying boat that had strayed into  a part of the forests where tourists are forbidden to go!!!
On that very same transect, we came across a small herd of chital- some 4-5 members of the group were visible. Chital, or spotted deer, form the bulk of the tiger’s preybase in the sunderbans. Chital sightings in sunderbans are few and far between, since they are heavily reliant upon the few fresh-water ponds which exist on the Sunderbans. Poaching for meat has also played a significant role in depressing their density, which, at 13.3 per sq. km (according to a WII survey), leaves a lot to be desired.

Chital form the bulk of the tiger's preybase in the Sunderbans.

Chital form the bulk of the tiger’s preybase in the Sunderbans.

Tigers in the Sunderbans also prey on rhesus macaques, wild boar(of which there are few), and monitor lizards, some of which can grow up to 7-8 feet in length.

Rhesus macaques are commonly seen at Sajnekhali.

Rhesus macaques are commonly seen at Sajnekhali.

After 3 days, the hectic census finally came to an end, with our sheets full of data regarding the time and GPS location of each sighting of wildlife and their signs. Even though i am a novice birdwatcher, i was able to identify common sandpipers, great egrets, ospreys, purple herons, golden orioles and 4 species of kingfishers- black-capped, brown-winged, small blue and white breasted, among others. The Sunderbans, with over 230 recorded species of birds, is a dream destination for a birdwatcher.

A common sandpiper.

A common sandpiper.

Great egret(Ardea Alba).

Great egret (Ardea Alba).

The results of our hard work were made available a year later- 76 tigers were estimated to exist in the Indian Sunderbans, compared to 70 in 2010. The need of the hour is to strengthen conservation initiatives in the Sunderbans, especially when it comes to patrolling and monitoring. The mangrove tigerland, with its enchanting habitat, fierce tigers, lurking crocodiles, and soaring egrets is a unique component of our natural heritage which deserves to be jealously protected forever.

Postscript : This article is a tribute to Panchanan Mondal and Ghosh Babu, those awesome forest guards whom i accompanied during the census, and whose dedication and knowledge was a source of inspiration. These brave foot soldiers of the Sunderbans are doing a wonderful job in possibly the most inhospitable tiger landscape in the world- serving with dedication day in and day out, inspite of having lost colleagues to tiger attacks in the past. 
I also thank Joydip and Suchandra Kundu, eminent Kolkata-based conservationists, for their help and support, and Subrata Mukherjee, the then field director of STR, and his team. May they receive all the support they so earnestly need, in their war to protect the mangrove tigerland.


The Superstar of Ranthambore National Park-T24

Posted by Vikas Sharma on May 12, 2015

Forum Post
Ever imagined a tiger so bold to eat his prey in the middle of a busy highway. That’s "T24" or the "Ustad" apparently, been spotted on the highway more than once. During our 3-day stay, in Ranthambore and on one of our visit's to the park, we heard calls just near the park's entry gate. We could see few people climbing nearby rooftops of the buildings and houses to have a peep into what was actually going around. oops!!! It was T24 our own very dear Ustad.
It is believed that
 T24 had some problem in his legs around 18 months back. A splinter of wood was the trouble shooter for him. So, the forest officials took him away to remove the splinter and treat him further. This took about 1-2 days and during this period, T24 had enough time to be around humans leading him to be completely fearless of the presence of humans around him. And since then, he has been responsible for creating the fear of God in man.
From the main gate of the National Park, there is a public road that goes till the Ranthambore fort and many people use it regularly to offer prayers to the famous Ganesh mandir inside the fort. This road falls within tiger territory and on many evenings, tigers can be spotted. Now this road comes under the territory of T24 and another female tiger as well. A male will have a larger territory overlapping a few female tigers.
Now since that T24 has killed around 4 people it is being given a thought of it being a man eater. But many experts still believe that tigers don't become man eaters till the former is unable to hunt due to some physical ailment or its territory is being trespassed time and again. In the case of T24 the reasons quite obvious have been the latter where fear of the presence of human beings around him has vanished completely. However mighty the human may think he is, but the side is always flipped when it comes to the ruler of the jungle.



Posted by Rajasekhar Thatha on March 04, 2014

Forum Post

Asiatic Lion

Asiatic Lions once used to roamaround the area, stretching from northern Greece, across Southwest Asia, tocentral India. However, today, the natural habitat of the majestic animal hasbeen reduced to the Gir forests of India only, making the Asiatic Lion almostsynonymous with the Indian Lion. Known scientifically as Panthera Leo persica,the royal animal is depicted on the National Emblem of India, since itrepresents power, strength and sovereignty.

Physical Traits
Asiatic Lion is the second largest 'Big Cat' in the world, after the ferocioustiger. A fully-grown male tiger reaches a length of 1.7 m to 2.5 m (head andbody), with its tail being somewhere around 70 to 105 cm long. The tail of anIndian Lion has a dark tuft of fur at the end. Its shoulder height is around 1to 1.23 m and the animal weighs between 150 kg and 250 kg. A lioness is smallerin size as compared to the male and reaches a height of 80 to 107 cm. Thelength of the head and the body is 1.7 to 2.5 m, while the weight is 120 to 180kg.

The males are orange-yellow to dark brown in color, while the females have asandy or tawny color. Males also have a mane, which is usually dark in color,but is rarely seen to be of black color. This characteristic mane is absent inthe females. The mane of an Asiatic Lion is also shorter than that of anAfrican Lion. However, Indian Lions are much more bushy, with longer tufts ofhair at the end of the tail as well as on the elbow joints, than their Africancousins.

Indian Lions are the only Big Cats that are seen living inlarge groups, known as 'prides'. A typical pride comprises of around 15members, which includes related lionesses, their cubs and a few males. Thenumber of males in a pride is usually around three and one of them dominatesthe rest of the group, including the other males. In a pride, it is thelionesses that do all the work, right from taking care of the cubs to hunting.The males only make the first claim on the game hunted by the female.

The lionesses as well as the cubs eat only the leftovers. Male lions establishtheir pride's territorial boundaries by roaring and scent marking and fiercelydefend it. All the members of the pride are closely attached with one another.Infact, majority of the lionesses remain with a particular pride throughouttheir life. However, a male is expelled from the pride the moment it is 3 yearsold. The few male lions that do not join any group become a major threat to theones with a pride. Asiatic lions usually hunt in groups and are rarely seenstalking a prey in isolation.

Mating Behavior
Male lions attain the age of maturity around 5 years of age, while thelionesses become mature after becoming 4 years old. There is no particularmating season of the Indian Lions. They can mate anytime during the entireyear. The gestation period lasts for 100 to 119 days, after which 3 to 4 cubsare born.

Natural Habitat
Asiatic Lions are found inhabiting open grasslands and forests of India,including scrub jungles.

Indian Lions are carnivorous and depend upon hunting for food. Their preymainly comprises of Deer, Antelope, Wild Boar and Wild Buffalo. At times, lionshave also been observed attacking young hippopotamus and elephants.

Geographical Range
Asiatic Lions are highly endangered species and have become extinct from allthe countries of the world, except the Indian subcontinent. In India also, theanimal is found only in the Gir forests of Gujarat.

Current Status
The last census on the Asiatic Lions was carried out in the year 2006. Itrevealed the population of the species to be somewhere around 359, includingover 50 lions kept in captivity.

Asiatic lions form prides (groups), in which all the work, including hunting,is done by the lionesses. The only work that males do is to make the firstclaim on the prey hunted by the females. Apart from that, they just laze aroundand do nothing.















Bengal Tiger

Bengal tiger is a subspecies oftiger, which is found in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent. One ofthe most common tiger subspecies, it is also found in a number of other Asiancountries, like Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Tibet, etc. Usually RoyalBengal Tigers of India are reddish-brown to rust-brown in color with blackstripes all over. However, a mutation may result in their color being whitealso. Such a tiger is known as the White tiger. Bengal tiger is the nationalanimal of both the Indian subcontinent as well as Bangladesh.

Physical Traits
Bengal tiger has a coat of reddish-brown to rust-brown color, with blackstripes and a white underbelly. The head and body of a male tiger measures 6 to9 feet in length. Its tail may grow as long as 3 feet. An average Royal Bengaltiger has a weight of somewhere between 400 and 660 pounds (180 and 300 kg),though some tigers have been found to weigh more than 300 kg also. Its shoulderheight may measure upto 3 feet (0.97 m). The maximum length of the skull may bearound 10 to 15 inches (250 to 380 mm).

A female Bengal tiger may grow to a length of 5 to 6 feet inlength (only head and body). Its tail is may be around 2 to 3 feet long.Standing at a shoulder height of around 2.5 feet, female Bengal tigers mayweigh around 250 to 450 pounds (110 to 200 kg). Their maximum skull length maybe about 8 to 12 inches length. The largest Bengal tiger seen till date weighedclose to 390 kg.

Natural Habitat
The natural habitat of Royal Bengal tigers comprises of Indian grasslands,subtropical and tropical rainforests, scrub forests, wet and dry deciduousforests and mangroves. The animal is found inhabiting the Asian countries ofIndia, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and Tibet. In India, Bengal tigersare found mainly in the Bengal region.

Bengal tigers of India survive on a purely carnivorous diet. Their preyprimarily comprises of medium and large-sized animals, like wild boar, deer,gaurs, water buffalo, young Asian Elephants and rhino calves. They may alsostalk small animals, namely hares, monkeys, langurs and peacocks. At times,Bengal tigers may hunt other predators like leopards, wolves, jackals, foxes,crocodiles and dholes. They can eat upto about 40 kg (84 lb) of meat at a timeand then go without eating for days at a stretch.

Bengal tiger is mainly a solitary creature, which forms alliances only duringthe mating period. It is a nocturnal creature, which prefers to hunt at night.Bengal tigers are extremely good tree climbers and are also quite apt atswimming. Infact, they swim quite frequently to ambush their prey, which aredrinking or swimming or trying to escape.

Mating Behavior
Mating usually takes place either during winter season or during spring season.The mating period lasts for 20 to 30 days, during which one can hear loud anddistinct communication calls. The cub stays with the mother and siblings tilltwo years of age, after which it goes off to wander on its own.

The population of Bengal tigers, throughout the world, is estimated to beapproximately 4,500. Of this, a major proportion (around 3000 tigers) lives inthe Indian subcontinent. Early 1990s saw the population of tigers in Indiadeclining at a fast pace, because of large-scale poaching as well as habitatloss. Tiger Conservation Program, known as Project Tiger, was started in Indiato improve the status of tigers. However, it success is open to question tilldate.

The major threats to the Bengal tiger comprise of poaching and habitatdestruction. They are hunted for their teeth, nails and skin and even killed fortheir other parts used in East Asian medicines. Urbanization and revengekilling has also contributed to the deteriorating population of the animal.

White Tigers
White tiger of India is not a separate subspecies of tiger. Rather, it is anindividual specimen of the ordinary tiger, with a different mutation. Intigers, a genetic condition may cause paler coloration, resulting in the birthof a tiger that is white in color. Most of the cases of white tigers have beenseen in the Bengal tigers. However, once can find such mutation in the captiveSiberian tigers as well as several other subspecies. White tigers havewhite-to-crème colored fur. Their noses are pink and the stripes on their bodyare gray or chocolate-brown in color. The eyes may be blue, green or amber.












Black Bear

Indian black bear is also known bythe names of Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus), Tibetan black bear,Himalayan black bear and Moon bear. They grow to a length of approximately 4 to6 feet, right from the nose to the tail. The small eyes of the bear, along withits rounded ears, a long snout, a large body, a short tail, and shaggy hair,differentiate it from the other types of bears. The small shoulder hump, afurry rear instep, a concave facial contour, small and curved claws and narrowears further accentuate the difference. Last but not the least, Asiatic blackbear also has a whitish V-shaped breast patch, not found in the other bearspecies of India.

The male black bear weighs between 220 and 480 pounds, while the females are110to 275 pounds in weight. The senses of the Himalayan black bears of India aregreatly developed and they boast of almost twice the hearing sensitivitypossessed by humans. Black bears have colored vision and their eyesight is verysharp. Even their olfactory senses (ability to smell) are highly evolved. Themating season of the Himalayan black bears is usually from late May to earlyJuly. They give birth to two cubs at a time, which stay with the mother foralmost seventeen months.

Indian black bears are omnivorous. Their diet depends uponthe season as well as the availability of food. The fall season is the time forhaving acorns, chestnuts, walnuts, and other fatty food. In spring season, theysurvive on a diet of bamboo, raspberry, hydrangea, and other plants, along withrodent's caches of acorns. Summer season is perfect for having raspberries,cherries, grasses and ants. Asiatic black bears are also known to attacklivestock at times.

Natural Habitat
Asiatic black bear generally inhabits upper subtropical and lower moisttemperate zones. They are found in East Asia and South Asia, includingAfghanistan, Pakistan, northern India, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Burma, southernSiberia, Russia, northeastern China, Taiwan and Japan. In India, Asiatic blackbears are found occupying Himalayan foothills, at a height of less than 3,750m. Black bears are also found in the Arun valley of Nepal, inhabitingSal-Castanopsis, Castanopsis and Rhododendron forests as well as the forestswith bamboo groves.

Status and Threats
Asiatic black bear is listed as endangered on the World Conservation Union's(IUCN's) Red List of Threatened Animals. One of the major reasons that havecontributed to the declining population of black bears is rampant deforestationand habitat loss. Asiatic black bears also face threat from farmers, who killthem in order to protect their livestock.




Black Buck

Other Names : Kala Hiran, Sasin, Iralai Maan and Krishna Jinka
Speed : Upto 50 mph

Indian black buck is also known by a number of other names like Kala Hiran,Sasin, Iralai Maan and Krishna Jinka. The scientific name of the black buckantelope is Antilope cervicapra and it natural habitat is the Indiansubcontinent. Grass forms the staple diet of the blackbucks. However, they doeat pods, flowers and fruits as supplements. The average lifespan of the Indiankala hiran is twelve years and at the maximum, they live for sixteen years.Black bucks are hunted by dogs and wolves.

About the Indian Black Buck
The male black bucks grow to a height of 32 inches and weigh somewhere between70 and 95 pounds. Their upper part is covered with either dark brown or blackfur. Chest, belly, inner sides of the legs, muzzle and chin of the males havewhite fur. Even the eyes are surrounded with white rings. Male black bucks haveringed horns that are up to 28 inches in length and twirl with three to fourturns. When the male blackbucks are born, they are light brown in color and asthey reach the age of three, they turn dark brown or black.

Female black bucks are much smaller than their male counterparts. They arebeige or light brown in color and most of the female blackbucks do not evenhave horns. Even the few females that have horns lack the rings and spiralsthat characterize the male horns. Black bucks have very sharp eyesight, which,along with their great speed, forms their main defense against the predators.Female black buck antelopes have a gestation period of approximately fivemonths. They generally give birth to two fawns every year, at a gap of sixmonths.

The fawn of black buck spends the first two weeks after his birth in the grass,between nursing. Only after completing the first two weeks does the fawn jointhe group. Indian black bucks seldom live in isolation, they are found mainlyin groups. The groups can be either those of the females, comprising of 15 to20 members, mixed groups, bachelor groups or territorial males. The group ofterritorial males dominates all the other groups and inhabits the main grazingareas, along with the female groups.

Natural Habitat
Apart from India, black buck is found in parts of Pakistan and Nepal. Initiallyin India, the blackbucks were found almost everywhere except for thenortheastern regions. However, today the population of black bucks has becomelimited to parts of Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana and Gujarat, along with a fewareas in the Central India. Blackbucks have open plains of India as theirnatural habitat and count amongst the fastest running animals on earth.

They live on open grasslands, dry thorn and scrublands. Black bucks wereintroduced in various parts of the world, including a number of ranches inTexas, in the United States of America. There are also free-ranging populationsof Indian black bucks in Argentina (Pampas in southern Buenos Aires, Santa Feand Entre Ríos provinces).

Current status of Black Bucks
Black bucks are included in the list of endangered species in India as well asNepal. Two major factors that have contributed to their declining populationare poaching and habitat destruction.

Apart from poaching and habitat destruction, the other threats to blackbucksinclude predation, overgrazing, diseases, inbreeding and hoards of visitors.The flesh and skin of black buck fetches quite a high price in the market,making the animal extremely vulnerable to hunting. The species is sufferingfrom inbreeding and at the same time, there is the wide scale encroachment bythe humans. Once found easily in the plains of North India, they have now beingrestricted to a few pockets in the country.

Bollywood actor Salman Khan was convicted for killing a black buck, whileshooting for the film 'Hum Saath Saath Hain'. However, the conviction wasstayed some time later.

















Also known as : Ship of the Desert
Type : Single-humped
Water retaining capacity : Five liters

The camels found in India are the single-humped camels, also known as theDromedary camels. Long-curved neck, deep-narrow chest and a single humpcharacterize the Indian camel. The hump is used by the camels as reservoir offatty tissues. In times of scarcity, the tissues are metabolized and the camelreceives energy. The size of the hump is not the same in all the camels. Itdiffers from one camel to another, depending upon its nutritional state. Intimes of starvation, the hump can get reduced to almost a non-existent size.

Indian dromedary camels have a heavy growth of hair on throat, shoulder, andhump, which is longer than the rest of the body. On an average, the camels inIndia live for a period of 40 to 50 years. They are widely used by the peopleof Rajasthan as a means of transportation. Infact, the camels are known as the'Ship of the Desert'. They are used for carrying goods as well as people.Indian camels also provide humans with milk, meat, wool, leather and fuel (fromtheir dried dung).

Natural Habitat
One can mainly find camels in the desert, dry arid regions of the country,especially the state of Rajasthan.

Camels primarily survive on an herbivorous diet, consisting of thorny plantsand dry grasses.

Dromedary camels can be usually seen in groups, consisting of anywhere betweentwo to twenty members. In every group, there is one male member who dominatesthe rest of the members, which comprise of females, sub-adults and young ones.While moving in a group, one can see the dominant male directing the group fromthe rear, while the female members lead at the front.

Mating Behavior
Indian camels attain maturity at the age of 4 to 5 years. They give birth toone offspring at a time and the gestation period is around fifteen months. Theyoung ones are raised by their mother for a period of two years after theirbirth, after which they attain adulthood.

Camels have the ability to endure wide changes in their body temperature aswell as water content. Their body temperature may vary as widely as being 41deg C (106 deg F) in the daytime and being 34 deg C (93 deg F) at night. Onlywhen they cross this limit do they begin to sweat, thus helping them save uptofive liters of water in one day. Indian camels can cope up with as much astwenty-five percent weight loss, caused by sweating. The thick coat of a camelreflects sunlight and serves as insulation from the heat of the sand.

























Clouded Leopard

Clouded leopards belong to theNeofelis genus and have the scientific name of Neofelis nebulosa. The averagelifespan of a clouded leopard is 11 years in the wild. However, in cases ofcaptivity, it may go upto 17 years.

Physical Traits
A clouded leopard grows to a length of 60 to 110 cm (2 ft to 3 ft 6 in). Itsweigh may be somewhere between 11 and 23 kg (25 lbs and 50 lbs). The coat ofIndian leopards is tan in color and has large, erratically shaped, dark-edgedellipses marks on it. Since the shape of the ellipses resembles clouds, theanimals have been given the name of 'Clouded Leopards'. Their build is huge andtheir canine teeth are the longest amongst all the cat species.

The short flexible legs of the Clouded leopard of India, along with its largepaws and sharp claws, make it an excellent tree climber. Its tail is almost aslong as its entire body, which serves as a further support in climbing. Thecubs of clouded leopard do not have dark ellipse, rather their entire body isdark in color.

The clouded leopard is a carnivore and mainly survives on arboreal andterrestrial mammals, primarily consisting of gibbons, macaques and proboscismonkey. Its other prey includes small mammals, deer, birds, porcupines, anddomestic livestock.

No Relation to Leopard
Clouded leopard has no close relation to leopard and comes under a separategenus, known as Neofelis.

Natural Habitat
Clouded leopards prefer to stay in tropical and subtropical forest of India,with an altitude of over 2,000 meters. One can also find the animal inhabitingIndian mangrove swamps and grassland. Their natural habitat stretches throughsouthern China, the eastern Himalayas, northeast India, and Southeast Asia. Itis believed that the species has become extinct in Taiwan.

Earlier, the clouded leopard was believed to have four subspecies, namely:

  • Neofelis nebulosa brachyurus - Taiwan (believed to be extinct in the wild)
  • Neofelis nebulosa diardi - Borneo, Sumatra and Java (absent since Neolithic times)
  • Neofelis nebulosa macrosceloides - Nepal to Myanmar
  • Neofelis nebulosa nebulosa - Southern China to eastern Myanmar

However, a few years back, moleculargenetic analyses have put a strong case for inclusion of two more species inthis category, namely Neofelis nebulosa (found in mainland Asia) and Neofelisdiardi (found in Indonesian archipelago).

There is hardly any information about the behavioral traits of the Cloudedleopard in the wild. However, it is believed that they are solitary creatures,which can be seldom seen in groups.

Mating Behavior
Female Clouded leopard attains maturity after it reaches the age of two years.After the gestation period, which lasts for about 85 to 93 days, it gives birthto cubs, which may be 1 to 5 in number. The cubs get active within 5 weeks ofbirth and become independent after around 10 months.

Clouded leopard has been listed in the Appendix I by CITES, the Convention onInternational Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. It is anendangered species and its international trade for any reason, except forscientific research, is restricted. Clouded leopard also finds a mention in theEndangered Species Act of the United States.



















The name 'Deer' is given to theruminant mammals belonging to the family Cervidae. They are one of the mostbeautiful creatures on this earth and extend to approximately 34 species. Maledeer, in India as well as the world, are known as stags, harts, bucks or bulls,depending upon the species to which they belong. While, the females are knownas hinds, does or cows. One can find deers widely distributed throughout theworld, including the Indian subcontinent. The only continents where deer arenot found are those of Antarctica and Australia.

The 34 species of deer can be divided broadly into two categories, known as theold world group and the new world group. The former comprises of thesubfamilies Muntiacinae and Cervinae, while the latter includes the subfamiliesHydropotinae and Odocoileinae. Read on to get more information about the Indiandeer.

Axis Deer

Axis Deer, also known as Chital Deer or Spotted Deer, is the native animal ofthe Indian subcontinent. It is found very commonly in India and is one of themost beautiful animals in the country. The spotted deer of India was introducedin the state of Texas in the 1930s. Since that time, axis deer of India hasbecome the most widespread of the entire deer species.

Brow-antlered Deer

Brow-antlered deer are known by the scientific name of Cervus eldii. They havea number of other names also, like Eld's Deer, Sangai Deer, Thamin Deer andeven Dancing Deer. The maximum lifespan of the Thamin deer of India is only tenyears and the deer has three subspecies also.

Hog Deer
Hog Deer is a subspecies of deer, found in the areas stretching from Pakistan,through northern India, to mainland Southeast Asia. A population of the hogdeer was introduced in a number of countries, including Australia, the UnitedStates and Sri Lanka.

Muntjac Deer

Muntjac Deer fall in the category of those deer that are shy and elusive. Theyare also known by the name of Kakad deer or the Barking deer in India. Thereason for this name is their alarm call, which seems very much similar to thebarking of a dog. Indian Muntjac deer counts amongst the ten subspecies of theBarking deer in the world.

Musk Deer
Musk deer comprise of one of the most endangered deer species, not only in theIndian subcontinent, but also in the whole world. They are classified as asubfamily of the Cervidae and have four sub-species.

Sambar Deer
Sambar Deer are dark brown in color and attain a height of 102 cm to 160 cm (40to 63 inches). The weight of the sambar deer of India may touch 300 kg. Thereare chestnut marks on the rump as well as the underparts. Sambhur deer of Indiaalso have beautiful manes. However, they are not spotted by birth. The spotsdevelop gradually after birth.

Swamp Deer
Swamp Deer, also known as Barasingha, is one of the most vulnerable species ofdeer of the Indian subcontinent as well as the world. Presently, one can findthem only in the protected sanctuaries of India. Known by the scientific nameof Cervus duvauceli, the swamp deep of India derives its name, Barasingha, fromits large antlers.






















Indian elephant, known with thescientific name of 'Elephas maximus indicus', is a subspecies of the AsianElephant. It is mainly found in the Indian subcontinent, that to in the scrubforested areas. The other counties where Asian elephants are found includeBangladesh, Bhutan, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal,Thailand, Sumatra, and Vietnam. Since Indian elephants are very huge and cantrample all other creatures, they have no natural enemies. Even lions, hyenas,and tigers attack only the very young elephants and not adults.

Physical Traits
Asian elephants of the Indian subcontinent grow to a height of between 8 ft and10 ft. Slightly smaller than the African elephant, they weigh as much as 7,000to 11000 pounds. The feet of an Asian elephant are very large and broad, whichenables it to balance its enormous weight quite easily. There are thick solesbelow the feet, which absorb shock and cushion legs, when the elephant walksand runs. Their length varies between 216 inches and 252 inches.

The huge and beautiful tusks of the Indian elephant onlyserve as the icing on the cake. These tusks are actually incisor teeth made upof ivory, which may grow upto 5 ft in length. The tusks are used by theelephants in digging for food, clearing debris, and carrying logs. The onlyother animal that has ivory tusks is the walrus.

Natural Habitat
Though Indian elephants are found everywhere, they prefer the scrub forests ofIndia, with abundant food supply and shady areas. They do not stay at aparticular place for more than a couple of days. One of the reasons for this isthat their diet is very huge and they have to move to new areas to keep themsupplied with food all the times. At times, you find Asian elephants roamingaround in the Indian jungles. However, this is possible only if there is athere's a meadow or open space (with grass) around. They also prefer muddyareas in summers, where they can cool off during the hot daytime.

Asian Elephant is herbivorous and survives on bamboo, berries, mangoes,bananas, shrubs, tree foliage, wood, apples, wild rice and coconuts. Only halfof the food eaten by elephants is used by their body. Therefore, it isnecessary for them to eat 330 and 350 pounds of food every day. Their diet alsoconsists of approximately 22 to 30 gallons of water per day.

The groups (herds) of elephants are matriarchal i.e., a female elephant leadsthe herd. Males remain isolated and rarely form groups. They usually join theherd only when the mating season approaches. The members of a herd make use ofa number of gestures and sounds while communicating with each other. Theirsense of commitment towards the other members of the group is very strong. Afemale elephant protects her young one very fiercely. In her absence, thisresponsibility comes in the hands of the other females of the herd.

Mating Behavior
Male elephants fight to establish rights over a female herd. Indian elephantsreach maturity by the age of twelve. The gestation period is between 630 and660 days and the number of offspring is only one. The baby elephant is known ascalf and usually weighs between 200 and 250 pounds.

Indian elephants are highly intelligent creatures and have acute senses ofhearing and smell. They have large ears and can hear even those sounds thatother animals do not. However, elephants have poor vision and their small eyescan see only upto 60 ft. Even though they are huge, elephants can easilybalance their weight on two legs, especially while reaching the leaves of atree. Even their sense of smell and sense of taste is very delicate.

National Parks
There is a significant population of elephants in the following national parksof India.

  • Periyar National Park
  • Bandipur National Park
  • Nagarhole National Park
















Indian langurs are lanky,long-tailed monkeys, having bushy eyebrows and a chin tuft. They have a blackface and their body color ranges from gray to dark brown to golden. The smalland lean body of an Indian langur is complimented with long hands. The termlangur means 'having a long tail' and the name suits the animal perfectly. Thenatural habitat of the langur comprises of humid forests, mangrove swamps andwooded terrains of India. In the following lines, we have provided informationabout the main Indian langur species:

Golden Langur
Golden Langur, or Gee's Golden Langur, is known by the scientific name ofTrachypithecus geei. An Old World monkey, it was first noticed by thescientific community in the 1950s only. In the Indian subcontinent, Goldenlangurs are found mainly in the foothills of the Himalayas, along theAssam-Bhutan border. The langurs are considered to be sacred by the Himalayanpeople. The coat of Indian golden langurs is covered with rich golden to brightcreamish hair. The face is black and they have a very long tail, which maymeasure upto 50 cm in length.

Hanuman Langur
Hanuman Langur is believed to be one of the Old World monkeys, belonging to theSemnopithecus Genus. They comprise of 15 subspecies and are terrestrial innature. Earlier hanuman langurs were believed to comprise of a single species.However, now they are recognized as seven distinct species. Hanuman langur isalso known by the name of Gray Langur, Entellus Langur and Common IndianLangur.













Indian leopard is one of the 8-9valid leopard subspecies found throughout the world. Known by the scientificname of Panthera pardus, it is the fourth largest of the four 'big cats' of thePanthera genus. At the same time, leopards are also the fifth largest of allcat species. The name 'Leopard' has been derived from a combination of twoGreek and Latin words leo and pard, 'leo' meaning lion and 'pard' meaningpanther. This name was given to the animal since it was initially believed tobe crossbreed of a lion and a panther.

Physical Traits
As far as the length of the Indian leopard is concerned, it may be anywherebetween one meters and two meters. Their average weight hovers somewhere around30 kg and 70 kg (65 lbs to 155 lbs). Leopards have a heavy and sturdy body andtheir head is larger in proportion to their body. The coat of a leopard iscovered with rosettes and they can climb trees with effortless ease. The cubsof a leopard have longer and thicker fur than the adults and even their pelageis grayer.

Indian leopards are nocturnal creatures and are consideredto be one of the most surreptitious animals. They can easily make themselvesundetected, even while living proximate to human settlements. Leopards are verygood swimmers, but lead a solitary life. Occasionally, one can find themroaming in a group of 3 to 4 animals. They have an acute sense of hearing,along with sharp eyesight.

Leopards are carnivores and eat almost every animal, ranging from monkeys toreptiles to fish. Infact, it is believed that they hunt from amongst 90 speciesof animals. Injured, sickly or struggling leopards, with a shortage of prey,may even hunt humans.

Mating Behavior
The mating season of leopards depends upon the areas they inhabit. For example,the leopards of India mate throughout the year while those in Siberia mate fromJanuary to February. Their estrous cycle lasts about 46 days and the femaleusually remains in heat for 6-7 days. They give birth to 2-3 cubs at a time,out of which 1 or 2 survive in most of the cases. Three months after beingborn, the cubs start joining their mother in hunts and live with her for thenext 18 to 24 months.

Natural Habitat
Till some centuries back, leopards used to roam around in almost all parts ofAfrica and southern Asia. However, today, their habitat has been reduced toSub-Saharan Africa, Asia Minor, the Middle East, India, Pakistan, China,Siberia, much of mainland South-East Asia and the islands of Java and SriLanka.

Current Status and Threats
The worldwide population of leopards is considered to be around 50,000.Nevertheless, the population of the 'Big Cat' has been decreasing at quite arapid pace in all the countries, including India. The major reasons for thisare their large-scale poaching as well as destruction of their natural habitatby humans. The subspecies that have been declared as endangered are Amur,Anatolian, Barbary, North Chinese and South Arabian Leopards.

Even though it is said that there are over 30 species of leopard, so far, only8-9 have been found to valid. These are:

  • Panthera pardus delacouri (Indochina)
  • Panthera pardus fusca (India)
  • Panthera pardus japonensis (China)
  • Panthera pardus kotiya (Sri Lanka)
  • Panthera pardus melas (Java)
  • Panthera pardus nimr (Arabia) (Uncertain subspecies)
  • Panthera pardus orientalis or Amurensis (Amur Region, border Russia, China, North Korea)
  • Panthera pardus pardus (Africa),
  • Panthera pardus saxicolor (Central Asia)
















Macaques are considered to be thesecond most-widespread species in the world, after humans. Their rangestretches on from northern Africa to Japan. Macaques comprise of 22 species intoto, out of which seven can be found in India also. Since a number of macaquespecies lack tails, they are also known as apes. Various species of the Indianmacaque are used for experimental purposes. In the following lines, we haveprovided information about the various species of Indian macaques:

Lion Tailed Macaque
Lion-tailed Macaque is one of the subspecies of macaque, found only in theWestern Ghats of South India. Known by the scientific name of Macaca silenus,it has life expectancy of 20 years in the wild and upto 30 years in captivity.Lion-tailed macaques spend most of their time on trees and are excellent swimmers.

Long Tailed Macaque
Long-tailed macaque is also known by some other names, like the Crab-eatingMacaque or the Cynomolgus Monkey. It is an arboreal macaque, belonging to theMacaca genus, and has the scientific name of Macaca fascicularis. A native ofthe Southeast Asia, the Crab-eating macaque of India has also been flown intoouter space.

Stump Tailed Macaque
Indian Stump-tailed macaque, also known as Bear macaque, isknown by the scientific name of Macaca arctoides. It can reach upto a length of70 cm, at the maximum, excluding the tail that may grow upto 8 cm in length.Indian Stump-tailed macaques weigh 6 to 13 kg and may live as long as 30 years.

Rhesus Macaque
A typical macaque, the Rhesus monkey of India is believed to be one of the bestspecies of the Old World monkeys. It is an excellent swimmer and enjoys water.Rhesus macaques are quite comfortable around humans and have the tendency tomove from rural to urban areas in search of easy food. The average lifespan ofRhesus macaques is approximately 15 years in the wild.

Bonnet Macaque
Bonnet Macaque, an Old World monkey, is also known by the scientific name ofMacaca radiata. Found only in India, it has been named so because of itsphysical appearance. Indian Bonnet macaques have a cap-like whorl of hair ontheir head, which radiates outward from the center. Since the coil of hairresembles a hat, they have been named as Bonnet macaques.

Assam Macaque
Assam Macaque is a diurnal primate, which inhabits the regions stretching fromNepal to Vietnam and Southern China. It is yellowish to dark brown in color andhas a hairless face. The color of the face is red in case of adults. AssamMacaques are also known by the name of Himalayan Macaque and Hill Monkeys inIndia.

Arunachal Macaque
Arunachal Macaque, scientifically known as Macaca munzala, is a native primateof Arunachal Pradesh state of northeastern India. It is called by the localpopulation as Munzala, meaning monkey of the deep forest. Arunachal Macaqueswere discovered by the Indian scientists in the year 2004 only.

Other Species of Macaque
The other macaque species, not found in India, comprise of:

M. sylvanus group

  • Barbary Macaque, Macaca sylvanus

M. nemestrina group

  • Southern Pig-tailed Macaque or Beruk, Macaca nemestrina
  • Northern Pig-tailed Macaque, Macaca leonina
  • Pagai Island Macaque or Bokkoi, Macaca pagensis
  • Siberut Macaque, Macaca siberu
  • Moor Macaque, Macaca maura
  • Booted Macaque, Macaca ochreata
  • Tonkean Macaque, Macaca tonkeana
  • Heck's Macaque, Macaca hecki
  • Gorontalo Macaque, Macaca nigriscens
  • Celebes Crested Macaque or Black "Ape", Macaca nigra

M. fascicularis group

  • M. mulatta group
  • Formosan Rock Macaque, Macaca cyclopis
  • Japanese Macaque, Macaca fuscata

M. sinica group

  • Toque Macaque, Macaca sinica
  • Tibetan Macaque or Milne-Edwards' Macaque, Macaca thibetana





Red Panda

Red panda is a beautiful animal,found in only some other countries of the world, including the Indiansubcontinent. Scientifically known as Ailurus fulgens, it is slightly biggerthan the domestic cat and founds a mention in the list of endangered species. Indianred panda bear is quite apt at climbing trees and is mainly herbivorous. It isalso known as the Red fox or the Common panda and is native to the Himalayanranges of India. A one of its kind animals, Red panda is believed to be aliving fossil. The only other fossil close to the panda is that of Parailurus,which lived 3 to 4 million years ago. The lifespan of a Red Panda may rangefrom nine years to fourteen years.

Other Names of Indian Red Panda Bear
Cat Bear, Bear Cat, Bright Panda, Common Panda, Fire Fox, Red Fox, Fox Bear,Himalayan Raccoon, Lesser Panda, Nigalya Ponya, Panda Chico, Panda Éclatant,Panda Rojo, Petit Panda, Poonya, Crimson Ngo, Red Cat, Sankam, Small Panda,Thokya, Wah, Wokdonka, Woker and Ye.

Physical Traits
Red fox grows to a length of 50 to 60 cm. Its tail is verylong; measuring somewhere around 30 to 60 cm. Male pandas are larger than thefemales. The weight of a male panda is between 4.5 kg and 6.2 kg, while that ofa female is between 3.7 kg and 4.5 kg. The upper part of their body is coveredwith long and soft, reddish-brown fur. On the lower parts of the body, the furis black in color. The face is covered with tear markings and the tail isringed and very bushy. The short and black legs of a red panda are covered withthick soles, which serve as an insulation from snow.

Common pandas of India are basically nocturnal creatures, which are foundresting in tree branches and hollows during the day. They are solitarycreatures and you will seldom find them roaming around in groups. Except forsome twittering and whistling sounds, Red pandas hardly communicate with eachother. In case of any threat, they either hurry into an inaccessible rockcolumn or a tree or attack with their razor-sharp claws.

Natural Habitat
Red panda is usually found in mountainous regions of India, at an altitude ofmore than 1800 m. They are very sensitive to heat and cannot toleratetemperatures over 25 deg C. Red Pandas are native to southeastern Asia,Himalayan Mountains in Nepal, southern Tibet, China, Bhutan, northeast India,highlands of Myanmar, Gongshan Mountains of Yunnan China and Hengduan Mountainsof Sichuan China.

The diet of Indian red fox bear mainly (2/3rd) consists of bamboo. The reasonfor this is that a panda cannot digest cellulose. The other constituents of itsdiet include berries, fruit, mushrooms, roots, acorns, lichen, grasses, youngbirds, eggs, small rodents and insects. When they are in captivity, red pandaswillingly eat meat also. The diet of a red panda contains a very small amountof calories and because of this reason; the animal rarely does anything otherthan sleeping and eating.

Mating Behavior
Red pandas of India attain maturity only at the age of 2 to 3 years. Theirmating period stretches on from the end of December to the middle of February.The gestation period lasts for 112 to 158 days, after which the female givesbirth to, between one and four, young ones. Usually the young ones are bornduring the period starting at the end of May and lasting upto the beginning ofJuly. Even the timing of birth of all the young ones is more or less the same,between 4:00 pm and 9:00 am. The nest of an Indian red panda bear is generallylocated in a hollow tree or a rock column. Only five months after their birthdo the young ones become totally independent. As the next mating seasonapproaches, the mothers abandon their babies.

Indian Red panda bear is under great threat of extinction. The main reason forthe declining population is the disintegration of its natural habitats, alongwith its specific diet needs. At the same time, Indian red fox animal is alsohunted in large numbers for its highly valued fur and tail. In 1996, the IUCNdeclared the Common pandas as threatened species. However, now they have beenput in the list of endangered species. The exact population of the Common pandais not known, but it is estimated to be less than 2500.


  • Western Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens)
  • Styans Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens styani)

Wildlife Sanctuaries
Red pandas can be found in the wildlife sanctuaries of Darjeeling, West Bengaland Sikkim, along with the Namdapha National Park of Arunachal Pradesh.










Indian Rhinoceros holds thedistinction of being the fourth largest animal, after the three elephantspecies. Known by the scientific name of Rhinoceros unicornis, the animal isfound in only two places in the world, Assam (India) and Nepal. The GreatIndian rhinoceros is a brilliant swimmer and has an acute sense of smell and hearing.Its maximum speed reaches 55 km/h, that to for a short period of time.

The only drawback of the Indian rhino, also known as the Great One-HornedRhinoceros, is that its eyesight is quite poor. The sheer size of the rhinoshas resulted in a few natural enemies. They may be attacked by tigers, butthere are hardly any recorded incidents of a tiger killing a full-grown Indianrhino. However, they may kill unguarded calves at times.

Physical Traits
Rhinos have a very thick coat, which is silver-brown incolor and have the minimal of body hair. The shoulders as well as the upperpart of the legs have wart-like bumps throughout. Male rhinos are larger thanthe females, with their weight being somewhere around 2260 to 3000 kg. Theaverage height of an Indian rhinoceros is 1.70 m (5.7 feet) and its averagelength hovers around 3.50 m (11.7 feet). As the name suggests, the GreatOne-Horned Rhinoceros has a single horn, which grows to a length of 20 to 101cm. It is present in both males as well as females and starts growing around 6years after birth.

Natural Habitat
The Great Indian rhinoceros is usually found inhabiting the tall grasslands andforests in the foothills of the Himalayas. Presently, it is found only in India(Assam) and Nepal.

Indian Rhino is basically a lonely and solitary creature and can be seldomfound forming groups. The only exception to this behavior consists of groups ofmothers and calves and breeding pairs. A male rhino of India usually has a homerange, within which it lives. The range usually stretches from 2 to 8 sq km andmay overlap with that of some other male.

During mating season, dominant males will not tolerate any other male crossingtheir territory. If such a thing happens, dangerous fights are bound to ensue.Indian rhinoceros are mainly diurnal creatures and are quite active during theday. During daytime, you can spot them wallowing in lakes, rivers, ponds, andpuddles. Through this process, they try to cool themselves.

The Great Indian Rhinoceros is herbivorous. Its diet mainly consists ofgrasses, leaves, aquatic plants and fruits.

Mating Behavior
The age of maturity of the Indian rhinoceros differs in males and females. Amale rhino starts breeding at the age of nine, while a female rhino attains maturityafter reaching five years of age only. When the mating season of a femaleapproaches, she whistles to inform the males about the same. The mating seasonis also a season for dangerous fights between the male rhinos, which maysometimes result in death.

The gestation period is 16 months, after which a single calf is born. Theinterval between the births of two calves is around 3 years. A young rhinostays with its mother for several years after the birth.

Indian rhinos found a mention in the list of the endangered species. Theirpopulation had been reduced to less than 100 in the early 20th century. Though,since then their population has increased, they are still under a threat ofextinction. Presently, the population of the Indian rhinoceros is believed tobe less than 25000.

Threats and Protection
One of the major threats facing the rhinos of India is their large-scalepoaching for the horn. The other threats include habitat deterioration. TheIndian and Nepalese governments have taken a number of steps, with the help ofthe World Wildlife Fund (WWF), to protect the Great Indian Rhinoceros.

National Parks
The Great One-Horned Rhinoceros is mainly found in the following national parksof India:

  • Kaziranga National Park (Assam)
  • Manas National Park (Assam)











Snow Leopard

Snow leopard is a native animal ofmountain ranges of central and southern Asia, including India. It is also knownas Ounce and has a scientific name of "Panthera uncia". Snow leopardscan live for a maximum of 18 years in then wild. In captivity, their lifespanincreases to 20 years.

There is some disagreement regarding the genus to which the snow leopardbelongs. Some taxonomists believe that it belongs to the genus Panthera, whileothers believe that it has own genus, Uncia.

No Connection with Leopard
Despite the common misconception, the snow leopard has no relation with theleopard. Infact, some people believe that it has a close connection withcheetah. Both of them show similar physical traits to quite an extent and bothare incapable of roaring.

Physical traits
The coat of a snow leopard of India is gray in color and iscovered with ringed spots and rosettes of black or brown. The tail is stripedand the fur is soft as well as beautiful. The tail as well as the bottom partof the paws of snow leopards is covered with fur. Snow leopards may weigh upto75 kg and the length of their head and body may reach 59 inches. Their tail isalso quite long and measures between 31 and 39 inches. The head of a male snowleopard is much squarer and wider than that of the female.

Natural Habitat
During summer season, snow leopards prefer to stay either above the tree lineon mountainous meadows or in the rocky regions of the Indian subcontinent,which are upto 6000 m in height. Winter season is the time for them to comedown to an altitude of somewhere around 2000 m. The home range of a snowleopard varies to quite an extent. For example, in Nepal, they need only 30-65sq km to survive, while, in Mongolia, their range increase to 1,000 sq km. Incentral and south Asia, they are found in Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, India,Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan,and Uzbekistan.

We mostly find snow leopards leading isolated lives and rarely forming anygroups. Usually, they kill animals, which are thrice as big as they are.

Mating behavior
The mating season of the snow leopard extends from January to May and thegestation period is usually of 98 to 103 days.

Snow leopards are carnivores and have a diet consisting of ibex, bharal,markhor, urial, boars, marmots and other small rodents.

Snow leopards have been listed under CITES, Appendix I, Endangered Species Act.Their total population (throughout the world) ranges between 3,500 and 7,000 inthe wild and 600 to 700 being in the various zoos of the world.

National Parks
Snow leopards are mainly found in the following national parks of India:

  • Hemis National Park, East Ladakh
  • Nanda Devi National Park, Uttarakhand (UNESCO Natural World Heritage Site)
  • Valley of Flowers National Park, Uttarakhand


  • Snow leopard is the national symbol of Tatars and Kazakhs
  • Snow leopard is the symbol of the Girl Scout Association of Kyrgyzstan
  • The official seal of the city of Almaty has snow leopard on it
  • Tatarstan's coat of arms also has snow leopard on it
  • There is a Snow Leopard award, which was given to Soviet mountaineers who scaled all five of the Soviet Union's 7000 m peaks.













Striped Hyena

Striped hyena belongs to theHyaenidae family and is scientifically known as Hyaena hyaena. Strongly relatedto the Brown hyena, it is basically a solitary creature. The average lifespanof striped hyenas hovers somewhere around 10 to 12 years in the wild. When keptin captivity, they can live longer also.

Physical Traits
The body coat of a striped hyena is covered with grayish-brown fur. Its legs,torso, head and back have black vertical stripes all over, while, muzzle andears are totally black. There is also a medium sized mane on its neck,shoulders as well as the back. When threatened, a striped hyena erects the hairon its mane, making itself look 30-40 percent bigger than it actually is. Thisactivity is also used in displays against other striped hyenas.

The underside of its neck is covered with a black throat patch. The legs arequite long and the tail is feathery, reaching the hocks. Striped hyena of Indiamay grow to a length of 4 to 5 feet (1.2 to 1.45m). It stands tall at ashoulder height of 2.2 to 2.5 feet (66 to 75cm). Striped hyenas weigh between57 and 90 pounds (26 and 41 kg). The size of a male and a female striped hyenadoes not differ too much. Quite similar to a number of other hot climateanimals, their ears also radiate heat.

Natural Habitat
Striped hyenas are found occupying the tropical savanna,grasslands, semi-deserts, scrub forests and woodlands. In the Indiansubcontinent, they inhabit open country, seashores as well as forests. Theirgeographical range also stretches on form Morocco and Senegal to Tanzania,across Asia Minor, the Arabian Peninsula, all the way to Iran and Pakistan,apart from India. Striped hyenas are believed to have become extinct in Europe.However, they can be sporadically spotted in Anatolia and Turkey.

Striped Hyenas are mainly carnivores, but may eat fruit also. Their preyincludes insects and small animals like mice, mammalian carrion, tortoise,porcupine and wild pigs. They may also hunt domestic animals, like goats,sheep, donkeys, and horses.

Striped hyenas are nomads by nature and move from one water hole to another.Still, they never venture more than 6 miles from their previous water hole.Hyenas are not gregarious creatures and live mostly in isolation. At times, onecan find them congregating in small family groups. Striped hyenas of India canbe frequently seen seizing and shaking each other by the neck in mock fightingrituals.

Mating Behavior
Female striped hyenas attain maturity when they reach 2-3 years of age. Theirestrous cycle lasts for 45 to 50 days and they can mate throughout the year.The gestation period is 88 to 92 days and the number of young ones may beanywhere from 1 to 5. The usual number of cubs is two and they start eatingmeat after 30 days.

Relationship with other predators
Striped hyenas of India are basically scavengers, which thrive on the kills ofother predators. This habit of theirs results in a confrontation with the otherpredators. In India and the Middle East, the striped hyenas may, at times,enter into a conflict with the wolves also. Striped hyenas may be able todominate very young tigers also.

Striped hyenas are included in the list of 'Near Threatened' species. The exactpopulation of the striped hyenas of India is not known.

Striped hyena faces no threat from natural predators, since it does not haveone. Their main threat is from humans, with whom they constantly come intoconflict. Striped hyenas may make human beings, mainly children, and livestocktheir target. This is the main reason why they are poisoned and trapped bypeople. Striped hyena of India is also poached since its parts are believed tohave curative properties. Last but not the least, it is facing the threat ofhabitat destruction.


  • Hyaena hyaena barbara
  • Hyaena hyaena hyaena











Wild Ass

Indian wild ass, also known as khur,is one of the subspecies of wild ass belonging to southern Asia. Its scientificname is Equus hemionus khur. Wild ass of India has an average age of 20-25years.

Physical Traits
Indian wild ass is quite dissimilar in appearance from the African wild ass.However, its looks are quite similar to that of the mule. The coat is usuallysandy in color, but may vary from reddish gray to beige, to pale chestnut. Themane is dark and erect and it goes from the back of the head to the neck area.Following the mane is a dark brown stripe that moves along the back of theanimal to the root of its tail.

Asiatic wild ass, belonging to India, may attain a body length of upto 260 cmand shoulder height of around 120 cm. Its tail is quite slim and slender andmay gain a length of approximately 80 cm. The tail is covered with brownishyellow hair. The body weight of Indian wild ass hovers somewhere around 250 kg.The mouth is slender and the ears are long and pointed. One of the fastestanimals in the world, it can attain the maximum speed of 50 km per hour.

Natural Habitat
The natural habitat of Asiatic wild ass comprises of salinedesert, grassland in arid zone and shrub land of India. Its geographical rangeextends from western India, through Sind and Baluchistan, Afghanistan, andsoutheastern Iran. Presently, the animal is mainly found in the little Rann ofKutch and its surrounding areas (lying in the Greater Rann of Kutch) in theGujarat province. Indian wild ass also inhabits Surendranagar, Banaskantha,Mehsana, and other Kutch districts.

Male wild ass, known as stallion, is found either living alone or in a smallgroup of 2 to 3 members. However, family groups are quite common.

Indian wild ass is usually seen grazing between the period of dawn and dusk. Itfeeds mainly on grass, leaves and fruits of plant, crop, Prosopis pods, andsaline vegetation.

Mating Behavior
Mating in case of Indian wild ass usually takes place in the rainy season. Thestallions fight against each other for the possession of the female. The age ofmaturity is 2 to 3 years. When the mating season of a female wild ass, known asmare, approaches, she leaves the group and goes with the stallion. They livetogether for a few days and then, come back to join the group. The gestationperiod lasts for approximately eleven months, after which a single calf isborn.

The population of Indian wild ass is declining at a fast pace. One of thereasons for this is that it became a victim of a disease known as surra in 1958and 1960, which resulted in the death of many animals. In November and Decemberof 1961, the outbreak of South African Horse Sickness led to a further declinein the population. The other threats include habitat destruction because ofencroachment, excessive grazing, etc.























Wild Boar

Wild boar is considered to be thewild antecedent of the domestic pig of the Indian subcontinent. It belongs tothe Suidae biological family, which also includes the Warthog and Bushpig ofAfrica, the Pygmy Hog of northern India and the Babirusa of Indonesia. Indianwild boars are also quite closely related to peccary or javelina of North,Central and South America.

Physical Traits
The thick coat of the wild boar of India is grayish-black in color and iscovered with bristle-like hair. It can grow upto a length of 6 feet and mayweigh as much as 440 lb (200 kg). The features of a wild boar are quite similarto that of a pig. It has a prominent ridge of hair, which match the spine. Thetail is short and straight and the snout is quite narrow.

The most noticeable as well as most distinguishing feature of the wild boarscomprise of a pair of extended canines. These canines grow both upward as wellas outward. Indian wild boars possess an acute sense of smell. Even theireyesight and hearing power is fairly strong.

Wild boars can be found roaming around in groups, known assounders. The number of sows, in a characteristic sounder, is two or three andrest of the members are the young ones. A typical sounder comprises of 20animals on an average. In exceptional cases, the membership of a sounder may goupto 50 also. Adult males join a sounder only during the mating period and forthe rest of the year they prefer to stay alone. Indian wild boars are basicallynocturnal creatures, which forage from dusk to dawn. When surprised orattacked, they may get aggressive.

Wild boars eat anything and everything, including nuts, berries, carrion,roots, tubers, refuse, insects, small reptiles, etc. Young deer and lambs mayalso form a part of their diet.

Wild boar is found inhabiting the woodlands of Central Europe, MediterraneanRegion (including North Africa's Atlas Mountains) and most of Asia (includingIndia).

Mating Behavior
There is no fixed mating period of the wild boars of India. However, wheneverit takes place, it results in a formal contest between the males to decide thedominant male. The winner gets to mate with the female boar. The maturityperiod is one year and gestation period lasts for four months. A female wildboar usually gives birth in the spring season and the litter normally consistsof 4 to 6 cubs.

The population of Indian wild boars is declining at a fast pace. The reasonsfor this are large scale poaching as well as habitat destruction. At some pointof time, Indian sub-continent consisted of 6-7 species of wild boar. However,today only one of them is left.


  • Sus scrofa scrofa (North Africa, Europe, and Asia)
  • Sus scrofa ussuricus (North Asia and Japan)
  • Sus scrofa cristatus (Asia Minor to India)
  • Sus scrofa vittatus (Southeast Asia to Indonesia)
  • Sus scrofa taiwanus (Taiwan)


Wildlife Sanctuaries in Kerala - The Perfect Place to Go for a Wildlife Tour

Posted by Vinod on February 20, 2014

Forum Post
Kerala is the most beautiful state on the southern tip of India. Kerala is known as Gods own country. Lot of reasons can be attributed for the adoption of the catchy title. Naturally the visitors feel very comfortable when they land on this soil. There is lot of destination to watch and visit. The most important factor that gives Kerala as a beautiful destination is Wild Life. It has the habitat consists of wet evergreen rainforests at lower elevations and highland and semi evergreen forests in the east are subject to a humid tropical climate. Most of Kerala's significantly biodiversity tracts of wilderness lie in the evergreen forests of its eastern most districts. You can found fourteen wildlife sanctuaries in the Western Ghats.

  • Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Shenduruny Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Periyar Tiger Reserve
  • Eravikulam National Park
  • Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Thattekad Bird Sanctuary
  • Peechi - Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Chimmini Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Silent Valley National Park
  • Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Aralam Wildlife Santuary

Kerala is the perfect place to go for a wildlife tour and a Kerala Wildlife Tour Package will give you the opportunity to spot wild animals & birds and feel the nature...

Share this page:

Join Us    

Download IWC Android app     IWC Android app

Copyright © 2001 - 2024 Indian Wildlife Club. All Rights Reserved. | Terms of Use

Website developed and managed by Alok Kaushik